1-10 of 10 Results

  • Keyword: objections x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

15. Contraception and Abortion  

A. M. Farrell and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of controlling fertility and birth. It begins by addressing the highly contested concept of personhood, before turning to consider varying forms of contraception, including contragestation and sterilisation (with a focus on non-consensual sterilisation of individuals judged to lack capacity). The chapter then considers the termination of pregnancy (including approaches across the UK and Ireland, and looking at how the law has evolved with regard to abortion), the position of the non-gestational parent, and the use of conscientious objection by care givers. The chapter concludes with a discussion on foetal research and experimentation, and foetal materials.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

9. The Control of Fertility and Child Birth  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of controlling fertility and birth. It addresses the highly contested concept of personhood, as well as contraception, contragestation, sterilisation, and termination of pregnancy, and the increasing use of conscientious objection by care givers.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

11. Absolute grounds for refusal of registration  

This chapter examines the absolute grounds for refusal of trade marks from registrability, which are found in s. 3 of the Trade Marks Act 1994 (TMA). The chapter lists objections to registrability based on the mark's own characteristics. To be refused registration, the mark should possess some innate quality which prevents registration. For instance, the mark applied for may be descriptive, generic, or it may lack distinctiveness. Marks that go against public policy or marks that are immoral will also be refused protection. The TMA also contains a number of negative objections in contrast to its predecessor, which required an applicant to show that the mark applied for was positively entitled to registration.

Chapter

Cover International Law

12. International dispute settlement and the ICJ  

This chapter examines the various political or diplomatic methods available for international dispute settlement. These methods include negotiation, mediation or ‘good offices’, inquiry, and conciliation. The array of diplomatic techniques available to parties to resolve a dispute is complemented by various means of settling disputes through the application of binding solutions based on the law. Two in particular, arbitration and adjudication, principally developed from earlier forms of non-binding settlement. Though these are different, they are linked by two principal characteristics. Foremost, they allow for a third party to issue a decision that is binding on the parties. Secondly, resorting to these methods requires the prior consent of the parties. The chapter then considers the International Court of Justice, the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations. The ICJ’s structure was frequently utilized as a model for later judicial institutions, making an enormous contribution to the development of international law.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

15. Trade marks 3: relative ground for refusal and invalidation, infringement, and defences  

This chapter discusses the relative grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the circumstances in which a trade mark can be infringed, and defences to an action of infringement, both at national level for UK trade mark registrations and at EU level for the EU trade mark. As relative grounds and infringement overlap, these are considered together. After introducing the relative objections and grounds of infringement generally, the chapter considers what constitutes infringing ‘use’ of a sign. The chapter then runs through the three grounds of infringement/relative objections, looking first at double identity, then likelihood of confusion, then infringement of marks with a reputation. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the principal defences.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

15. Trade marks 3: relative ground for refusal and invalidation, infringement, and defences  

This chapter discusses the relative grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the circumstances in which a trade mark can be infringed, and defences to an action of infringement and their limits. As relative grounds and infringement overlap, these are considered together. Important additional legal issues on infringement—such as what constitutes infringing ‘use’ of a trade mark—are also considered. Key questions are the power conferred by a trade mark over the activities of others and the extent to which activities of others can prevent the registration of a trade mark. Again, the chapter reflects evolving legislation at an EU level (particularly the EU’s 2015 trade mark reform package), together with a rich body of case law.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

14. Trade marks 2: definition of a registrable trade mark, absolute grounds for refusal and invalidation, and revocation  

This chapter examines the definition of a registrable trade mark, absolute grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the extent to which objections can be overcome through proof of distinctiveness acquired through use and the rules on revocation of a registered trade mark, both at national level for UK trade mark registrations and at EU level for the EU trade mark. It examines these issues looking at many different kinds of trade mark, from traditional work marks and logos to so-called ‘non-conventional’ trade marks such as three-dimensional product shapes, sounds, smells, colours, and position marks.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

14. Trade marks 2: definition of a registrable trade mark, absolute grounds for refusal and invalidation, and revocation  

This chapter examines the definition of a registrable trade mark, absolute grounds for refusal or invalidation of a registered trade mark, the extent to which objections can be overcome through proof of distinctiveness acquired through use and the rules on revocation of a registered trade mark, both at national and EU levels. It examines these issues looking at many different kinds of trade mark, from traditional work marks and logos to so-called ‘non-conventional’ trade marks such as three-dimensional product shapes, sounds, smells, colours, and ‘position’ marks. The chapter reflects evolving legislation at an EU level (particularly the EU’s 2015 trade mark reform package), a rich base of case law, and links to the the theroetical debates seen in Chapter 13.

Chapter

Cover Human Rights Law Directions

16. Article 9: freedom of thought, conscience, and religion  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses Article 9, which establishes a general right to freedom of ‘thought, conscience, and religion’. The right to ‘manifest’ belief is ‘qualified’ in the sense that justified interferences are allowed. The duty of a court addressing an Article 9 issue is to decide whether there has been an interference, for which the state is responsible, that either restricts a person in holding religious beliefs or restricts the manifestation of belief. Manifestations of belief can be restricted if the restriction can be justified under the terms of Article 9(2). Important issues involving conscientious objection and the wearing of religious dress both in the context of employment and generally are considered in relation to justification. Article 9 can often be invoked in tandem with other Convention rights that also help to secure freedom of religion and belief.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

10. Competition Act 1998 and the cartel offence: public enforcement and procedure  

This chapter describes the system of public enforcement under the Competition Act 1998. This chapter begins with a consideration of the way in which inquiries and investigations are carried out under the Competition Act. It briefly considers the position of complainants to the CMA, followed by a discussion of the extent to which it may be possible to receive guidance from the CMA on the application of the Act. The chapter then describes the powers of the CMA to enforce the Competition Act, the criminal law cartel offence and the provisions on company director disqualification. It concludes with a discussion of concurrency, appeals under the Competition Act and the Government’s review of the operation of the Competition Act between 2014 and 2019.