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Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

24. Damages  

This chapter is the first of two chapters concerned with remedies. The focus of this chapter is monetary remedies; the financial consequences of a proven tort. It begins by discussing the notion of damage, and damages, before exploring different types of damages; the principle of full compensation; the interrelationship of tort and other compensation systems; pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses; death in relation to tort; and damage to property.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Directions

17. Remedies and limitation  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. The remedies for torts begin with financial compensation for both pecuniary and non-pecuniary losses, but also include injunctions. Compensation can be claimed by the injured party and also their survivors and dependants following death. Tort compensation is normally paid as a lump sum and will be liable to various deductions. This chapter also discusses how limitation of actions will be a factor which can influence the injured parties’ ability to bring an action in tort.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law

Farley v Skinner [2001] UKHL 49  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Farley v Skinner [2001] UKHL 49. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Contract Law 5e

Farley v Skinner [2001] UKHL 49  

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Farley v Skinner [2001] UKHL 49. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

12. Remedies for breach of contract  

This chapter examines the various remedies for breach of contract. The principal remedy is an award of damages, the main aim of which is to put the claimant in the position in which he would have been had the breach not occurred. The various types of damages are discussed, notably the distinction between expectation loss and reliance loss, and the ability to claim for financial and non-pecuniary losses. The chapter also discusses restitutionary remedies in cases where the defendant has been enriched due to his breach of contract. Finally, the chapter looks at remedies designed to ensure that persons adhere to contracts, such as specific performance and injunctions.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Contract Law

11. Damages  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and other features. The common law places great emphasis on damages as the primary remedy for breach of contract, reinforced by the fact that although a victim of a breach may seek specific performance or an injunction, such orders are equitable in nature and therefore discretionary. In claiming damages, the victim of a breach will need to establish that: the claimed method for assessing damages is appropriate (measure); the damages are not too remote (remoteness); if relevant, compensation for inconvenience and/or disappointment caused by the breach is recoverable (non-pecuniary losses); the losses could not have been reasonably mitigated (mitigation); and the recoverable losses have been properly quantified (quantification). Separately, the validity of any agreed damages clause will need to be determined.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

11. Damages  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the principles by which contractual damages are assessed. The discussions cover the aim of contractual damages, the difference between damages in contract and in tort; the relationship between the expectation interest and the reliance interest; cost of cure and difference in value; remoteness of damage; foreseeability and assumption of risk; non-pecuniary losses; mitigation; contributory negligence; and penalties, liquidated damages and forfeiture.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

11. Damages  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the principles by which contractual damages are assessed. The discussions cover the aim of contractual damages, the difference between damages in contract and in tort; the relationship between the expectation interest and the reliance interest; cost of cure and difference in value; remoteness of damage; foreseeability and assumption of risk; non-pecuniary losses; mitigation; contributory negligence; and penalties, liquidated damages and forfeiture.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

14. Damages for breach of contract  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Where there is breach of contract, the aggrieved party is entitled to the remedy of damages as of right. Contractual damages aim to compensate the claimant for losses suffered rather than punish the defendant. To achieve compensation the claimant is put in the position he would have been in if the contract had been properly performed and the breach had not occurred. In other words, the aim is to protect the expectation of performance (known as the ‘expectation interest’ or the ‘performance interest’). This may involve any difference in value between the promised and the actual performance, loss of profits, or reimbursing the claimant for any expenditure that had been wasted due to the breach. A claimant may not be fully compensated for his losses as a result of the remoteness rule, which limits recovery of losses and/or the duty to mitigate (minimize) loss. Damages may also be apportioned, in some circumstances, for the claimant’s own contributory negligence in contributing to his own loss. In general, non-pecuniary losses are not recoverable in a claim for breach of contract, but there are cases where a modest sum may be awarded for the disappointment resulting from not receiving the promised performance. The parties may include an agreed damages clause in their contract but in the event of breach only a liquidated damages clause will be enforceable; a penalty clause will not be enforceable beyond the claimant’s actual loss.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

13. Breach of contract  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. Where there is breach of contract, the aggrieved party is entitled to the remedy of damages as of right. Contractual damages aim to compensate the claimant for losses suffered, rather than punish the defendant. To achieve compensation the claimant is put in the position he would have been in if the contract had been properly performed and the breach had not occurred. In other words, the aim is to protect the expectation of performance (known as the ‘expectation interest’ or the ‘performance interest’). This may involve any difference in value between the promised and the actual performance, loss of profits, or reimbursing the claimant for any expenditure that had been wasted due to the breach. A claimant may not be fully compensated for his losses as a result of the remoteness rule, which limits recovery of losses and/or the duty to mitigate (minimize) loss. Damages may also be apportioned, in some circumstances, for the claimant’s own contributory negligence in contributing to his own loss. In general, non-pecuniary losses are not recoverable in a claim for breach of contract, but there are cases where a modest sum may be awarded for the disappointment resulting from not receiving the promised performance. The parties may include an agreed damages clause in their contract but in the event of breach only a liquidated damages clause will be enforceable; a penalty clause will not be enforceable beyond the claimant’s actual loss.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

14. Damages for breach of contract  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. Where there is breach of contract, the aggrieved party is entitled to the remedy of damages as of right. Contractual damages aim to compensate the claimant for losses suffered rather than punish the defendant. To achieve compensation the claimant is put in the position he would have been in if the contract had been properly performed and the breach had not occurred. In other words, the aim is to protect the expectation of performance (known as the ‘expectation interest’ or the ‘performance interest’). This may involve any difference in value between the promised and the actual performance, loss of profits, or reimbursing the claimant for any expenditure that had been wasted due to the breach. A claimant may not be fully compensated for his losses as a result of the remoteness rule, which limits recovery of losses and/or the duty to mitigate (minimize) loss. Damages may also be apportioned, in some circumstances, for the claimant’s own contributory negligence in contributing to his own loss. In general, non-pecuniary losses are not recoverable in a claim for breach of contract, but there are cases where a modest sum may be awarded for the disappointment resulting from not receiving the promised performance. The parties may include an agreed damages clause in their contract but in the event of breach only a liquidated damages clause will be enforceable; a penalty clause will not be enforceable beyond the claimant’s actual loss.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

14. Damages for breach of contract  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. Contractual damages aim to compensate the injured party for the loss suffered due to breach of contract. Damages for breach are compensatory and not punitive so that it is possible to recover only for the actual loss suffered by the injured party. This chapter considers the different measures to achieve compensation for loss suffered as a result of the breach and the limitations on the ability to be fully compensated in a breach of contract claim. It also discusses agreed damages provisions and their enforceability.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

14. Damages for breach of contract  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. Contractual damages aim to compensate the injured party for the loss suffered due to breach of contract. Damages for breach are compensatory and not punitive so that it is possible to recover only for the actual loss suffered by the injured party. This chapter considers the different measures to achieve compensation for loss suffered as a result of the breach and the limitations on the ability to be fully compensated in a breach of contract claim. It also discusses agreed damages provisions and their enforceability.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

7. Remedies for breach of contract  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on damages, the aim of which is generally to protect the claimant’s contractual expectation and put the claimant into the position they would have been in had the contract been properly performed. The lost expectation may be measured in terms of the difference between what the claimant expected to get and what was actually received. There are limitations on the claimant’s ability to be fully compensated for losses as a result of breach, i.e. remoteness, mitigation, contributory negligence, and the ability to recover for non-pecuniary losses in contract. This chapter also examines agreed damages clauses and the operation of the penalty rule.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

23. Damages  

This chapter examines the entitlement of a claimant to recover damages in respect of a breach of contract committed by the defendant and is organized as follows. Section 23.2 discusses the different measures of damages that can be awarded, while 23.3 analyses the performance interest. Section 23.4 examines the circumstances in which a claimant can seek damages based on his ‘reliance’ losses rather than his performance interest, and 23.5 discusses the circumstances in which damages may be awarded to protect the claimant’s ‘restitution’ interest. Section 23.6 examines the entitlement of a claimant to recover damages in respect of non-pecuniary losses, particularly ‘mental distress’. Section 23.7 considers the general rule that damages are assessed as at the date of breach and the exceptions to that rule, while 23.8 considers the various doctrines which the courts use in order to keep liability within acceptable bounds. These include remoteness, mitigation, and contributory negligence. Section 23.9 examines the circumstances in which a claimant can recover what is known as ‘negotiating damages’ or the defendant can be ordered to account to a claimant for the profits that he has made from his breach of contract. Section 23.10 looks at the possibility that exemplary damages might play a role in breach of contract cases. The chapter concludes, in the final sections, with a discussion of agreed damages clauses (and related clauses) and their legal regulation.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

13. Damages  

Where the parties have not agreed on the consequences of breach or any agreed remedies are unenforceable, the default is that the aggrieved party is always entitled to expectation damages for breach of contract. This chapter discusses: (1) the types of loss recognised by contract law and so compensable for breach of contract; (2) how loss is calculated; (3) when contract law allows departures from the expectation measure and allows awards claims based on reliance, restitution, account of profits, or loss of opportunity to bargain (negotiating damages); and (4) when consumers have the right to a price reduction.