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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

45. Norwich Pharmacal and Related Disclosure Orders  

This chapter considers a number of other special forms of disclosure orders, the best known of which is the Norwich Pharmacal order. Norwich Pharmacal orders are primarily used for finding the identity of an unknown potential defendant. They can only be sought against a person who facilitated and got ‘mixed up’ in the wrongdoing. Norwich Pharmacal orders therefore cannot be made against ‘mere witnesses’. Pre-action disclosure orders bring forward the time when disclosure of documents takes place to the period before a claim is issued. Disclosure against non-parties enables the court to order a witness to produce documents in advance of the trial, thus avoiding adjournments when documents are produced at the last minute at trial.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law

9. Fraud  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the law on fraud, covering fraud by false representation; fraud by failing to disclose information; fraud by abuse of position; fraud and possession offences; obtaining services dishonestly; conspiracy to defraud; and making off without payment. The offence of fraud can be committed where the defendant dishonestly makes a false representation intending to make a gain for themselves or a loss to another. The defendant is only guilty if they know that the statement is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Fraud is also committed where the defendant dishonestly fails to disclose information which they are under a duty to disclose, intending to make a gain for themselves or cause a loss to another. A third way of committing fraud is where the defendant misuses a position of trust in a dishonest way to make a gain or cause a loss. The second part of the chapter focuses on the theory of fraud, covering the extent and nature of fraud, and the Fraud Act 2006.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

5. Misrepresentation and non-disclosure  

In general, contract parties need not disclose important matters about the transaction to each other. But, those who make false statements to induce the other party’s consent to the contract may find themselves liable for damages for misrepresentation and their contracts set aside. This chapter examines: (1) what must be proved in an action for misrepresentation; (2) what, if any, duty is imposed for non-disclosure; (3) when a contract can be set aside (rescinded) for misrepresentation; (4) the different types of money awards that can be made for misrepresentation; (5) the extent to which the parties can exclude or limit liability for making a misrepresentation; (6) the recourse that consumers have against misleading and aggressive practices; and (7) the justifications underlying the remedies for misrepresentation.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

9. Misrepresentation and non-disclosure  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines issues related to pre-contractual misrepresentation, which is a vitiating factor. It explains what counts as an actionable misrepresentation and discusses its distinction with the treatment of non-disclosure. It explores the elements for an actionable misrepresentation and the test of cause/reliance. It considers the remedies for misrepresentation, namely rescission which involves setting the contract aside and restoring the parties to the pre-contractual position, and damages, which are available at common law for fraudulent misrepresentation and under the Misrepresentation Act 1967 for other misrepresentations unless the misrepresentor can discharge the burden of reasonable grounds for belief. This chapter also explains that any clause that purports to exclude or restrict liability for misrepresentation is subject to the statutory requirement of reasonableness (for non-consumer contracts), and the normal CRA test of fairness (for consumer contracts).

Chapter

Cover Anson's Law of Contract

9. Misrepresentation and Non-Disclosure  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This chapter focuses on relief for misrepresentation and for the exceptional cases in which there may be relief for non-disclosure, and considers misrepresentations that have not been incorporated as a term of the contract. In such cases, the misled party will sometimes be entitled to claim tortious damages in respect of loss sustained by reason of the misrepresentation. If the misrepresentation was made fraudulently, damages in the tort of deceit can be recovered. If it was made without reasonable care being taken to ascertain its truth, the misled party may recover damages by virtue of statute, or at common law in the tort of negligence. Where the party making the misrepresentation believed, and had reasonable grounds to believe, that the facts represented were true, although the contract is still voidable at the suit of the misled party, tortious damages cannot be claimed but damages may sometimes be awarded in lieu of rescission. A misrepresentation made by a trader to a consumer may also constitute a ‘prohibited practice’ under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008, which will give the consumer ‘rights to redress’ under the Regulations. A pre-contractual misrepresentation therefore may give rise to a wide range of remedies: rescission of the contract, as well as damages by statute or at common law, in contract or tort.