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Chapter

Cover Tort Law

3. The Standard of Care in Negligence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the reader to the fault principle or negligence standard, along with its positive and negative implications. This chapter first asks. ‘What is negligence?’. It covers the standard of care and, within this, it looks at the objective standard. The chapter goes on to explore the way in which professional skill and care are assessed in the medical context. It also considers reasonable risk-taking and the absence of evidence of fault.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

10. Occupiers’ liability  

This chapter focuses on the liability of an occupier to persons who are injured on their premises and the Occupiers’ Liability Acts of 1957 and 1984. The discussion considers the relationship between occupiers’ liability and negligence, what makes someone an ‘occupier’ or ‘visitor’, the duty owed to visitors and to trespassers and other non-visitors, and the exclusion of liability. The basis of liability is fault, and, to visitors at least, the duty differs little from the requirements of negligence, but there are sufficient differences to make it subject to a special chapter. These differences arise partly for historical reasons, but also because of the need to balance the rights of the occupier to deal with their property as they wish and the need to protect entrants from injury.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

5. Employers’ Liability and Vicarious Liability  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the law on employers’ liability and vicarious liability. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: tort of negligence; statutory duties, and the effect of breach of statutory duty; the Employers’ Liability (Defective Equipment) Act 1969; vicarious liability, and specifically The Catholic Child Welfare Society and others v Various Claimants and The Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools [2012] UKSC 56; and defences to negligence.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

11. Occupiers’ liability  

This chapter discusses occupiers’ liability, which deals with the risks posed, and harms caused, by dangerous places and buildings. In such cases, the occupier of the premises may be liable where a person who comes onto their land is injured in or by unsafe premises if the occupier has not taken reasonable care to ensure that those entering are safe. The general principles of negligence have been incorporated into, and modified by, statute in the form of the Occupiers’ Liability Acts 1957 and 1984. Although the Acts define the circumstances in which a duty of care will be owed (and tell us something as to its extent, as well as matters relating to its discharge and limitation), questions of breach and causation still need to be established by reference to the ordinary principles of negligence.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

9. Liability for defective premises and structures  

This chapter examines the potential liability for injury and/or other forms of loss arising from being upon or use of defective premises and structures. It explains that there are two types of defendant in this area of negligence. The first are persons actually occupying premises and the second are those who might be liable for defects in the premises including landlords, builders, and professionals such as architects and consulting engineers. Much of the relevant law here is statutory, the common law supplementing the statutory provisions. This chapter discusses the provisions of the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1957, the Occupiers’ Liability Act 1984, and Defective Premises Act 1972.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

11. Occupiers’ liability  

This chapter discusses occupiers’ liability, which deals with the risks posed, and harms caused, by dangerous places and buildings. In such cases, the occupier of the premises may be liable where a person who comes onto their land is injured in or by unsafe premises if the occupier has not taken reasonable care to ensure that those entering are safe. The general principles of negligence have been incorporated into, and modified by, statute in the form of the Occupiers’ Liability Acts 1957 and 1984. Although the Acts define the circumstances in which a duty of care will be owed (and tell us something as to its extent, as well as matters relating to its discharge and limitation), questions of breach and causation still need to be established by reference to the ordinary principles of negligence.

Chapter

Cover Smith, Hogan, and Ormerod's Criminal Law

4. Crimes of negligence  

David Ormerod and Karl Laird

Negligence refers to conduct that does not conform to what would be expected of a reasonable person. Along with intention and recklessness, negligence involves a failure to comply with an objective standard of conduct; that is, all of them are forms of fault. To prove negligence, the prosecution is not required to show that the accused failed to foresee a relevant risk; it only has to establish that his conduct failed to comply with a reasonable standard. A person is negligent if he is not able to comply with an objective standard of behaviour set by the law. This chapter deals with crimes of negligence and negligence as mens rea, negligence as the basis of liability, degrees of negligence, negligence as a form of culpable fault, and negligence and capacity.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

4. Causation  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses the issue of causation. Damages are due to the victim only if the harm was due to the tortfeasor. The harm must be the effect of the defendant's misconduct and causation must be established. The principal question to ask in matters of causation is: Did the breach of duty contribute to the occurrence of the harm? At all costs one must avoid the easy supposition that a result can have only one cause, or that one must seek out the ‘main’ cause, relevant though this may be in claims under an insurance policy. The chapter also identifies three ways that the law lets a defendant off the hook even though the harm would not have occurred but for his negligence. These are the rules of remoteness, intervention, and purpose.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

23. Defences  

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the role of defences in the law of torts. It then considers their application to torts which require proof of damage in order to be actionable, and in particular with the tort of negligence. The discussions cover contributory negligence; consent; exclusion and limitation of liability; illegality; necessity; inevitable accident; authorisation; and limitation of action. The chapter takes into account recent statutory developments including the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 on the law governing exclusion and limitation of liability. It also examines the extensive Supreme Court case law reexamining the defence of illegality.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

3. Establishing Liability in Principle: Duty of Care  

This chapter discusses the following: the duty concept and the elements of the tort of negligence; formulating the duty of care; kinds of damage; the manner of infliction; and the way in which the notion of duty confines liability by reference to the nature of the parties involved.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Book

Cover Street on Torts

Christian Witting

Street on Torts provides a wide-ranging overview, and a clear and accurate explanation of tort law. The book consists of nine parts. Part I provides an introduction to the subject, including examination of protected interests in tort and the history of this branch of law beginning with the ancient trespass torts. Part II looks at negligent infringements of the person, property and financial interests, as well as examining the liability in negligence of public authorities. Part III looks at intentional invasions of interests in the person and property. Part IV looks at misrepresentation-based and general economic torts. Part V is about torts of strict or stricter liability (that is, where fault plays either no part or a lesser part in liability decisions) and includes consideration of nuisance and product liability. Part VI considers interests in reputation (ie defamation). Part VII is about actions in privacy. Part VIII looks at the misuse of process and public powers. The final part, Part IX, is about vicarious liability, parties, and remedies.

Book

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

Kirsty Horsey and Erika Rackley

Kidner’s Casebook on Torts provides a comprehensive, portable library of the leading cases in the field. It presents a wide range of carefully edited extracts, which illustrate the essence and reasoning behind each decision made. Concise author commentary focuses the reader on the key elements within the extracts. Statutory materials are also included where they are necessary to understand the subject. The book examines the tort of negligence including chapters on the basic principles of duty of care, omissions and acts of third parties, the liability of public bodies, psychiatric harm, economic loss, breach of duty, causation and remoteness of damage and defences. It goes on to consider three special liability regimes—occupiers’ liability, product liability and breach of statutory duty—before turning to discussion of the personal torts and land torts. It concludes with chapters on vicarious liability and damages.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

2. Duty of care: basic principles  

This chapter sets out the basic principles of negligence. Duty is one element in the tort of negligence, for it must be shown that not only was the defendant under a duty towards the claimant to be careful, but also that he failed to achieve the required standard of care and that that failure caused the damage, and finally that the damage was not too remote a consequence of the act. Duty is about relationships, and it must be shown that the particular defendant stood in the required relationship to the claimant such that he came under an obligation to use care towards him. This relationship is sometimes referred to as ‘proximity’. The chapter presents cases to illustrate the meaning of proximity. It also discusses the unforeseeable claimant problem and policy factors.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Tomlinson v Congleton BC [2004] 1 AC 46  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Tomlinson v Congleton BC [2004] 1 AC 46. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Poole Borough Council v GN [2019] UKSC 25  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Poole Borough Council v GN [2019] UKSC 25. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Tomlinson v Congleton BC [2004] 1 AC 46  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Tomlinson v Congleton BC [2004] 1 AC 46. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Mitchell and another v Glasgow City Council [2009] UKHL 11  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Mitchell and another v Glasgow City Council [2009] UKHL 11. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Complete Criminal Law

3. Mens rea: blameworthy states of mind  

This chapter focuses on mens rea (MR) and discusses some of the components of MR, which include intention, recklessness, negligence, and gross negligence. It explains that intention can be direct or oblique and that recklessness may be defined as the conscious taking of an unjustified risk. It also explains how to distinguish between negligence and gross negligence. The chapter examines the concept of strict liability in the context of criminal law and discusses the implications of strict liability for actus reus and MR, evaluating arguments for and against strict liability, and considering the treatment of strict liability under the European Convention.