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Chapter

Cover International Law

13. The Relationship between International and National Law  

Eileen Denza

This chapter examines the relationship between international and national law. It discusses the approach of international courts and tribunals; the approach of national parliaments and national courts; and some problems that arise in national courts. While prospects for a harmonized approach to the relationship between international and national law are dim, conflict can be avoided through the close involvement of international lawyers in the treaty-making and ratification process; attention at the time of ratification to implementation questions; the teaching of international law as part of the professional training of judges; and expert assistance to national courts when international law questions arise.

Chapter

Cover International Law

10. Jurisdiction  

Christopher Staker

This chapter focuses on the principles of international law that govern the right of States to apply their laws to conduct and events occurring within or outside their own territories; the resolution of disputes arising from overlapping jurisdictional claims; and the problems of enforcing national laws. The discussions cover the meaning of ‘jurisdiction’; the significance of the principles of jurisdiction; doctrinal analysis of jurisdiction; the territorial principle; the national principle; the protective principle; the universal principle; treaty-based extensions of jurisdiction; controversial bases of prescriptive jurisdiction; types of jurisdiction; limitations upon jurisdiction; inadequacies of the traditional approach; and the fundamental principle governing enforcement jurisdiction.

Chapter

Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

5. Personality and Recognition  

International law is unlike the law of national legal systems in that the persons or entities to which it applies are not always immediately apparent. National law applies to natural or legal persons within the territorial borders and to ‘nationals’ of the home State. In a general way, the ‘subjects’ of national law, being the persons to whom the legal system is addressed, are reasonably well defined geographically and legally. International law has no territorial boundaries in the same sense and no comparable concept of ‘nationals’. Consequently, its ‘subjects’ are harder to define and even to identify. This chapter discusses the types of international legal personality and recognition in international and national legal systems.

Book

Cover European Union Law

Steve Peers and Catherine Barnard

European Union Law draws together a range of perspectives to provide an introduction to this important subject. The volume offers a broad range of approaches to provide students with a solid foundation to the institutional and substantive law of the EU. Topics covered include the development of the EU, its political institutions, and constitutionalism in the EU. International law and the EU is examined, as well as the effects of EU law on national legal systems. There is a specific chapter on the effect of Brexit on both the EU and the UK. The volume also considers the free movement of goods, and free movement of natural persons, legal persons, and capital in the EU. Labour and equality law, EU health law, environmental law, consumer law, and criminal law are also considered in detail, as are immigration and asylum law.

Book

Cover European Union Law

Edited by Catherine Barnard and Steve Peers

European Union Law draws together a range of perspectives to provide an introduction to this important subject. The volume offers a broad range of approaches to provide students with a solid foundation to the institutional and substantive law of the EU. Topics covered include the development of the EU, its political institutions, and constitutionalism in the EU. International law and the EU are examined as well as the effects of EU law on national legal systems. There is a specific chapter on the effect of Brexit on both the EU and the UK. The volume also considers the free movement of goods, natural persons, legal persons, and capital in the EU. Labour and equality law, EU health law, environmental law, consumer law, and criminal law are also considered in detail, as are immigration and asylum law.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

10. The Relationship Between EU Law and National Law: Supremacy  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the doctrine of supremacy of EU law, which was developed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) based on its conception of the ‘new legal order’. The ECJ ruled that the aim of creating a uniform common market between different states would be undermined if EU law could be made subordinate to national law of the various states. The validity of EU law can therefore, according to the ECJ, never be assessed by reference to national law. National courts are required to give immediate effect to EU law, of whatever rank, in cases that arise before them, and to ignore or to set aside any national law, of whatever rank, which could impede the application of EU law. Thus, according to the ECJ, any norm of EU law takes precedence over any provision of national law, including the national constitutions. This broad assertion of the supremacy of EU law has not however been accepted without qualification by national courts, and the chapter examines the nature of the qualifications that have been imposed by some national courts. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of the supremacy of EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

10. The Relationship Between EU Law and National Law: Supremacy  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the doctrine of supremacy of EU law, which was developed by the European Court of Justice (ECJ) based on its conception of the ‘new legal order’. The ECJ ruled that the aim of creating a uniform common market between different states would be undermined if EU law could be made subordinate to national law of the various states. The validity of EU law can therefore, according to the ECJ, never be assessed by reference to national law. National courts are required to give immediate effect to EU law, of whatever rank, in cases that arise before them, and to ignore or to set aside any national law, of whatever rank, which could impede the application of EU law. Thus, according to the ECJ, any norm of EU law takes precedence over any provision of national law, including the national constitutions. This broad assertion of the supremacy of EU law has not however been accepted without qualification by national courts, and the chapter examines the nature of the qualifications that have been imposed by some national courts. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of the supremacy of EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

8. Pay and Working Time  

This chapter examines the statutory regulation of the wage–work bargain and the working conditions of ‘employees’ and ‘workers’, analysing their historical background and the justifications for their introduction. It covers the rights conferred on employees and workers under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 and the Working Time Regulations 1998, including working time rights and the right to annual leave. Both laws have the capacity to over-ride the mutually agreed contractual arrangements struck by the parties. The chapter also addresses the provisions of the Employment Rights Act 1996 relating to wages (e.g. the statutory right not to suffer unauthorized deductions from wages, and the right to a guarantee payment).

Chapter

Cover Brownlie's Principles of Public International Law

3. The relations of international and national law  

This chapter explores the relationship between international and national law, discussing both the common law tradition and the civil law tradition. It suggests that each system is supreme in its own field; neither has hegemony over the other. And yet any generalities offered can only provide a background to the complex relations between the national and international systems. Three factors operate. The first is organizational: to what extent are the organs of states ready to apply rules of international law internally and externally? The second factor is the difficulty of proving particular rules of international law. Third, courts, national and international, will often be concerned with the question of which is the appropriate system to apply to particular issues arising. The question of appropriateness emphasizes the distinction between organization, that is, the character of the jurisdiction as ‘national’ or ‘international’, and the character of the rules of both systems as flexible instruments for dealing with disputes and regulating non-contentious matters.

Chapter

Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

4. International Law and Domestic Law  

The interaction between international law and domestic (or national or ‘municipal’) law demonstrates the struggle between State sovereignty and the international legal order. While the international legal order seeks to organise international society in accordance with the general interests of the international community, State sovereignty can be used to protect a State against the intervention of international law into its national legal system. This chapter discusses theories about the relations between international law and national law; national law on the international plane; international law on the national plane; and examples of international law on the national plane.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

1. Intellectual property law: an introduction  

This chapter provides an accessible introduction to intellectual property (IP) law. It provides and challenges some definitions of intellectual property law and IP itself. It discusses the development of IP law as a field of study in an increasingly global context and presents a realistic view of the law as it actually operates; the relationships between different levels of IP law—at national, European, European Union, and international levels; the various influences on the formation, justifications for, and development of IP law including between IP law and other legal fields; and the tensions that arise from different perspectives when the law seeks to protect IP.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

1. Intellectual property law: an introduction  

This chapter provides an accessible introduction to intellectual property (IP) law. It provides and challenges some definitions of intellectual property law and IP itself. It discusses the development of IP law as a field of study in an increasingly global context and presents a realistic view of the law as it actually operates; the relationships between different levels of IP law—at national, European, European Union, and international levels; the various influences on the formation, justifications for, and development of IP law including between IP law and other legal fields; and the tensions that arise from different perspectives when the law seeks to protect IP.

Chapter

Cover Cassese's International Criminal Law

2. The principle of legality  

Antonio Cassese, Paola Gaeta, Laurel Baig, Mary Fan, Christopher Gosnell, and Alex Whiting

This chapter begins with a discussion of how national legal systems tend to embrace and ground their criminal law lies on, with respecct to either the doctrine of substantive justice or that of strict legality. It then covers the principle of legality in civil law and in common law countries; the principle of legality in international criminal law; articulations of the principle of legality; and the principle of legality of penalties.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

3. The relationship between European Union and United Kingdom competition law  

This chapter focuses on the current interaction between European Union and UK law. EU law is currently a source of UK law. However, the relationship between the two regimes is expected to change in the future as a consequence of the UK’s decision to withdraw from the EU. The European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 stipulates that the European Communities Act 1972 will be ‘repealed on exit day’, which would be 29 March 2019 provided that the two-year period since Article 50 TEU was triggered is not extended. Once the European Communities Act 1972 has been repealed, EU law will cease to be a source of UK law. No major immediate changes to the national competition legislation are to be expected, but future reforms could distance the UK system from the EU rules.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

9. The European Union and Brexit  

This chapter focuses on the constitutional implications of the UK’s membership of the European Union and the constitutional implications of its exit from the EU (or ‘Brexit’). The chapter examines how EU law was accommodated within the UK legal system during the period of the UK’s membership of the EU, and in particular considers the consequences of the primacy of EU law for the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty. The chapter also considers the extent to which lessons learned about the UK constitution as a result of EU membership will remain relevant now that the UK has left the EU.

Chapter

Cover International Law

1. Foundations and structure of international law  

This chapter introduces the subject of public international law and provides an overview of its most important elements. It begins with a brief historical overview of international law. It then presents the international legal system consisting of different structures of legal rules and principles; discusses the basis of international legal obligation; offers a brief overview of the relationship between international law and national law; and deals with the issue of enforcement. The chapter concludes with an overview of some of the critiques of the international legal system.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

9. The Application of EU Law: Remedies in National Courts  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the application of EU law by national courts and the way in which the CJEU controls national remedies for breach of EU law. Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union contains a new clause added by the Lisbon Treaty, which specifies that ‘Member States shall provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in the fields covered by Union law’. Article 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights provides that ‘[e]veryone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article’. However, beyond these broad new provisions, EU law does not lay down any general scheme of substantive or procedural law governing remedies for its enforcement. The European Court of Justice has responded to the lack of a harmonized system of EU remedies by requiring national courts, in certain cases, to make available a particular type of remedy (e.g., restitution or interim relief), regardless of whether this would be available under national law. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning remedies and EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

9. The Application of EU Law: Remedies in National Courts  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the application of EU law by national courts and the way in which the CJEU controls national remedies for breach of EU law. Article 19 of the Treaty on European Union contains a new clause added by the Lisbon Treaty, which specifies that ‘Member States shall provide remedies sufficient to ensure effective legal protection in the fields covered by Union law’. Article 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights provides that ‘[e]veryone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article’. However, beyond these broad new provisions, EU law does not lay down any general scheme of substantive or procedural law governing remedies for its enforcement. The European Court of Justice has responded to the lack of a harmonized system of EU remedies by requiring national courts, in certain cases, to make available a particular type of remedy (e.g., restitution or interim relief), regardless of whether this would be available under national law. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning remedies and EU law in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Cases & Materials on International Law

8. Jurisdictional Sovereignty  

A State’s administrative, judicial, executive and legislative activity is part of the exercise of its sovereignty, sometimes known as its jurisdictional sovereignty. This chapter examines the objects of a State’s jurisdictional sovereignty (both natural and legal persons) and the circumstances in which it may be exercised. It considers the general principles of jurisdiction; grounds for the assertion of jurisdiction by national courts; and state jurisdiction and persons apprehended in violation of international law.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

14. Preliminary Rulings  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses on Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, which contains the preliminary ruling procedure. Article 267 has been of seminal importance for the development of EU law. It is through preliminary rulings that the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has developed concepts such as direct effect and supremacy. Individuals assert in national courts that the Member State has broken a Union provision, which gives them rights that they can enforce in their national courts. The national court seeks a ruling from the ECJ whether the particular EU provision has direct effect, and the ECJ is thereby able to develop the concept. Article 267 has been the mechanism through which national courts and the ECJ have engaged in a discourse on the appropriate reach of EU law when it has come into conflict with national legal norms. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which the preliminary reference system is relevant in relation to the UK post-Brexit.