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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to “modern slavery” is discussed.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights. ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to ‘modern slavery’ is discussed.

Chapter

This chapter look towards the future agenda for international human rights and provides an overview of issues that are likely to characterize the evolution of international human rights. Whilst States remain the primary obligees, required to take all necessary measures to respect, promote, and protect human rights in fulfilment of their treaty obligations, a number of other entities are increasingly powerful and influential. Securing their support for advancing human rights is important, as is ensuring that such entities act in accordance with human rights and can be held to account for violating actions. This chapter considers non-State actors, including non-State armed groups and businesses. The roles of international organizations when engaged in activities in other States and non-governmental organizations are considered briefly.

Book

Janet Loveless, Mischa Allen, and Caroline Derry

Complete Criminal Law offers a student-centred approach to the criminal law syllabus. Clear explanations of general legal principles are combined with fully integrated extracts from leading cases and a wide range of academic materials. This text aims to engage the reader in an active approach to learning and to stimulate reflection about the role of criminal law, offering a complete guide to the LLB/GDL criminal law syllabus with extracts from key cases, academic materials, and explanatory text integrated into a clear narrative. It provides a range of pedagogical features, including concise summaries, diagrams, and examples. Thinking points are included to facilitate and reinforce understanding. Students are referred to the social and moral context of the law, wherever relevant, to encourage them to engage fully with the topical subject matter. This new edition includes coverage of several recent cases of importance including: R v Aidid [2021] (voluntary intoxication), Barton and Booth [2020] (dishonesty), Broughton [2020] and Long, Bowers and Cole [2020] (involuntary manslaughter), Damji [2020] (strict liability: reasonable excuse), Dawson [2021] and Singh [2020] (loss of control), DPP v M [2020] (defence of compulsion), Ivor and Others v R [2021], Lawrance [2020], and Attorney-General’s Reference (Section 36 of the CJA 1972) (No 1 of 2020) [2020] (sexual offences), Lanning and Camille [2021] (joint venture: overwhelming supervening act), Martins [2021] (appropriation in robbery), MS [2021] (proximity in attempt), Pwr v DPP [2022] (strict liability), Thacker and others [2021] (necessity: political protest), Williams (Demario) [2020] (self-defence: defence of property) and the Domestic Abuse Act 2021 (coercive control, strangulation, consent).

Book

Janet Loveless, Mischa Allen, and Caroline Derry

Complete Criminal Law offers a student-centred approach to the criminal law syllabus. Clear explanation of general legal principles is combined with fully integrated extracts from the leading cases and a wide range of academic materials. This text aims to engage the reader in an active approach to learning and to stimulate reflection about the role of criminal law, offering a complete guide to the LLB/GDL criminal law syllabus with extracts from key cases, academic materials, and explanatory text integrated into a clear narrative. It provides a range of pedagogical features, including concise summaries, diagrams, and examples. Thinking points are included to facilitate and reinforce understanding. Students are referred to the social and moral context of the law, wherever relevant, to encourage them to engage fully with the topical subject matter. This new edition includes coverage of several recent cases of importance including: Highbury Poultry Farm Produce Ltd v CPS, Lane and Letts (strict liability); Tas, Crilly, Dreszer, Harper (secondary participation); Petgrave (duress of circumstances); Cheeseman, Wilkinson (self-defence); MK v R and Gega v R (modern slavery: compulsion); Taj [2018] EWCA Crim 1743 (intoxicated mistake and self-defence); Loake v Crown Prosecution Service [2017] EWHC 2855 (insanity); Offensive Weapons Act 2019; BM (consent in offences against the person).