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Chapter

This introductory chapter traces the development of the European Union. Since its inception in 1952 the EU has matured and developed from a Community of like-minded States into a Union of a greater diversity of states, with a comprehensive legal system which is increasingly penetrating the national legal systems of Member States. From the six original members, the EU now counts 28 Member States, after Croatia’s recent accession. Eleven of the thirteen States which have joined in the last decade are in Central and Eastern Europe and have discarded their old Communist regimes, turning into democracies with the qualifications to join the Union.

Chapter

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter considers the circumstances in which Member State liability will arise. The discussions cover the establishment of the principle of State liability; the Francovich test governing the imposition of State liability; the development of the principle of State liability; the Factortame test governing the imposition of State liability; the relationship between State liability and direct effect/indirect effect; and the relationship between State liability and EU liability under Article 340 TFEU.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the three principal remedies provided by law to members of a company: the derivative claim under Pt 11 of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006); the unfair prejudice remedy under Pt 30 of the CA 2006; and the petition for winding up the company under s 122 of the Insolvency Act 1986 (IA 1986).

Chapter

This chapter examines the supremacy of EU law from both the point of view of the Union, as understood by the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the point of view of member states. A consensus seems to be emerging from the national and constitutional courts that EU law supremacy is accepted only in so far as it does not infringe the individual rights protection of the national constitutions, in which case the constitutional courts will exercise their reserved rights over national constitutions to uphold them over inconsistent EU law or to review EU law in light of their own constitutions.

Chapter

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a very wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter considers the circumstances in which Member State liability will arise. The discussions cover in depth the establishment of the principle of State liability; the Francovich test governing the imposition of State liability; the development of the principle of State liability; the Factortame test governing the imposition of State liability; the relationship between State liability and direct effect/indirect effect; and the relationship between State liability and EU liability under Article 340 TFEU.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on membership and the incidents of membership. The discussion covers classes of shares, class rights, share transfer and transmission, and the register of members. The chapter considers how people become members and the importance of entry on the register of members. It also considers the restrictions on access to the register and the power of the court to rectify the register when necessary to do so. It is possible to protect shareholders by providing for classes of shares and the chapter considers the protection afforded by class rights and how class rights, once created, can be varied subsequently. Share transfer and transmission is also considered.

Chapter

Tribunals have operated for over 200 years. They are essentially specialised courts dealing in specific areas of legal dispute such as employment, housing, immigration, mental health, social benefits, and tax. This chapter explains the development of tribunals from the late eighteenth century to the present day. It examines the major reforms that have taken place in the twenty-first century, resulting in most tribunals being re-organised into ‘chambers’ within the First-tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal. The chapter explains the composition of tribunals and the rules on appointment of tribunal members, including lay members. It explains the ways in which tribunal decisions may be challenged, either by way of an appeal to another tribunal or to the mainstream courts, or through judicial review. The chapter examines the advantages of tribunals over mainstream courts but also considers whether, through a process known as ‘legalism’, tribunals are becoming too much like the mainstream courts.

Chapter

Tribunals have operated for over 200 years. They are specialised courts dealing in specific areas of legal dispute such as employment, housing, immigration, mental health, social benefits, and tax. This chapter explains the development of tribunals. It examines the major reforms that have taken place in the twenty-first century, resulting in most tribunals being re-organised into ‘chambers’ within the First-Tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal. The chapter explains the composition of tribunals and the rules on appointment of tribunal members. It explains the ways in which tribunal decisions may be challenged, either by an appeal to another tribunal or to the courts, or through judicial review. The chapter examines the advantages of tribunals over courts and considers whether tribunals are becoming too much like the mainstream courts.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about the supremacy of EU law and its reception in Member States. Both the legal arguments for supremacy and the political logic are often considered in establishing the reasoning for EU law supremacy. The first question concentrates on the reasons for EU law supremacy from the point of view of the Union and in the view of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU (or also abbreviated CoJ)). A general question about the exit process of a state by a Member State in the light of Brexit is included.

Chapter

This chapter discusses articles in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) that provide for actions that are brought directly before the Court. Under Articles 258 and 259 TFEU (ex Articles 226 and 227 EC), respectively, the European Commission and Member States may bring enforcement proceedings against a Member State in breach of Treaty obligations. Article 260 TFEU (ex Article 228 EC) requires compliance with the Court’s judgment. Article 263 TFEU (ex Article 230 EC) concerns judicial review of EU acts. The outcome of a successful action is annulment. Article 265 TFEU (ex Article 232 EC) provides for actions against the EU institutions for failure to act.

Chapter

This introductory chapter traces the development of the European Union. Since its inception in 1952, the EU has matured and developed from a Community of like-minded states into a Union of a greater diversity of states, with a comprehensive legal system which is increasingly penetrating the national legal systems of Member States. From the six original members, the EU now counts 27 Member States. Eleven of the thirteen newer Member States are in Central and Eastern Europe, and have discarded their old Communist regimes, turning into democracies with the qualifications to join the Union. The latest developments and changes, including Brexit and the effects of Covid-19, are also discussed.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The existence and scope of EU competence are outlined in the Lisbon Treaty: the EU may have exclusive competence, shared competence, or competence only to take supporting, coordinating, or supplementary action. This chapter examines these three principal categories of EU competence, and their implications for the divide between EU and Member State power. It also considers certain areas of EU competence that do not fall within these categories, and the extent to which the new regime clarifies the scope of EU competence and contains EU power. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of EU competence in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The existence and scope of EU competence are outlined in the Lisbon Treaty: the EU may have exclusive competence, shared competence, or competence only to take supporting, coordinating, or supplementary action. This chapter examines these three principal categories of EU competence, and their implications for the divide between EU and Member State power. It also considers certain areas of EU competence that do not fall within these categories, and the extent to which the new regime clarifies the scope of EU competence and contains EU power. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of EU competence in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

4. Direct actions in the Court of Justice of the European Union  

Articles 258–260, 263, 265, 277, and 340 TFEU

Matthew J. Homewood and Clare Smith

This chapter discusses articles in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) that provide for actions that are brought directly before the Court. Under Articles 258 and 259 TFEU, respectively, the European Commission and Member States may bring enforcement proceedings against a Member State in breach of Treaty obligations. Article 260 TFEU, requires compliance with the Court’s judgment. Article 263 TFEU concerns judicial review of EU acts. The outcome of a successful action is annulment. Article 265 TFEU provides for actions against the EU institutions for failure to act.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Company Law Concentrate helps readers to consolidate knowledge in this area of law. This sixth edition has been fully updated and includes coverage of the 2018 UK Corporate Governance Code, the Wates Corporate Governance Principles, the UK Stewardship Code 2020, the Companies (Miscellaneous Reporting) Regulations 2018, and the reforms proposed following the consultation on insolvency and corporate governance. Case law updates include BAT Industries plc v Sequana SA [2019], Burnden Holdings (UK) Ltd v Fielding [2019], Popely v Popely [2019], and Vedanta Resources plc v Lungowe [2019]. Chapters examine business structures, incorporation, the constitution of the company, directors, members, corporate governance, capital and capital maintenance issues, members’ remedies, and corporate rescue and liquidation.

Chapter

This chapter explains what membership of an LLP entails. It explains how a person becomes a member of an LLP, and the different types of membership that are recognised in law. It considers case law on the question as to whether a person can be both a member and an employee, and both a member and a worker. Finally, it explains how a person might be disqualified from being a member of an LLP and the consequences of such a person acting as a member whilst disqualified.

Chapter

This chapter addresses the rights and obligations of membership. It explains what a member's share in the LLP entails, and considers how the share can be assigned or treated as property. It considers the duties that members owe to the LLP and to each other, including both fiduciary duties and those that arise under a common law duty of care. It considers what duties a member may have to outsiders, and also the protections that a member may have in the event of unfair treatment by the LLP.

Chapter

This chapter deals with articles of association, the principal element of a company’s constitution, under the Companies Act 2006. It describes the content of the articles, model articles of association which can be adopted by limited companies (either in whole or in part) on registration, and the function of articles as a contract between the company and its members and between the members themselves. It also considers provisions of articles that may be incorporated in other contracts and the right of members of a company to amend its articles. The chapter discusses a number of particularly significant court cases, including Allen v Gold Reefs of West Africa Ltd [1900] 1 Ch 656 and Quin and Axtens Ltd v Salmon [1909] AC 442.

Chapter

This chapter examines the principal constituents who make up and contribute to the success of companies in the UK. The role of the members is discussed, especially their role in corporate decision making. What is a director and the powers of the board of directors are examined, as well as a discussion of the appointment and remuneration of directors. The importance of the company secretary is examined. The chapter than looks at the role of the company’s auditor as well as the liability that can be imposed upon a negligent auditor. Finally, the chapter looks at the position occupied by a company’s creditors and examines how they can protect themselves via taking security, such as a fixed or floating charge over the company’s assets.

Chapter

This chapter examines the duties placed upon company directors. These include the duty to act within the company’s powers, to promote the success of the company, to exercise independent judgment, to exercise skill and care, and the various duties relating to conflicts of interest (such as the duty to avoid a conflict of interest, and the duty not to accept benefits from third parties). It describes the company transactions that require member approval and explains the limitation period for an action alleging breach of duty by a director. This chapter also considers the ways a director who is liable for breaching his duties may obtain relief from liability.