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Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter discusses the three special forms of criminal liability: strict liability (including absolute liability), vicarious liability, and corporate liability. A strict liability offence is an offence which does not require proof of at least one mens rea element. An absolute liability offence does not require proof of any mens rea elements. Vicarious liability imposes liability on the defendant for the acts or omissions of another person. Corporate liability relates to the liability of a company for a criminal offence.

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Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

The chapter first discusses the general principles governing a bank's liability. One way to approach the topic involves a consideration of the relevant doctrines whereby banks can incur liability. Section I selects just a few such doctrines. Another approach considers the various factual matters which feed into legal decisions about bank liability. The same factors recur across different legal doctrines: indeed, they arise for consideration in other systems of law. This is the focus of Section II. Section III considers advisory liability, which can arise in two ways: a failure to advise where the law imposes a duty to do so, and a failure to advise adequately when a bank assumes the task of advising a customer or third party. Section IV turns to the English law doctrines which have a particular application to transactions involving those the law regards as vulnerable. The final section deals with ‘lender liability’.

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This chapter explains the various commercial and legal justifications that gave rise to the creation of Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs), and gives an overview of similar bodies in different jurisdictions. It explains the legislative scheme by which LLPs were introduced, and how the provisions of company law have been applied.

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Out of the estimated 950,000 personal injuries claims each year in the UK, about 750,000 cases arise from road traffic accidents (RTAs), 90,000 are employers’ liability cases (EL), and 100,000 are public liability cases (PL). About 90% of these are cases where the damages are estimated at between £1,000 and £25,000. This chapter discusses cases covered by the RTA and EL/PL protocols; the provisions of the RTA protocol; the process under the RTA protocol: claim notification, medical evidence and negotiation, and Part 8 claim to determine quantum; child settlement applications; fixed costs under the RTA and EL/PL protocols; and cases where parties can stop following the RTA or EL/PL protocols.

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This chapter looks at an issue linked to the concept of the company as a separate legal entity, that is, how to identify which acts of the human agents involved in the separate legal entity are the acts of the company for the purposes of determining the rights and liabilities of the company. There are several distinct sets of rules which may assist in this context. The chapter focuses on the rules of attribution which determine whose acts are the acts of the company for which the company should be liable. It discusses corporate acts and liabilities, corporate liability in contract, corporate liability in tort, and criminal liability of the company.

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This chapter considers the extent of the potential liabilities of directors for breach of their duties. There are a variety of possible consequences where directors are found to have acted in breach of duty. The chapter focuses on the extent of a director's civil liability for breach of fiduciary duty and the liability of third parties involved in some way in that breach of duty. The ability to mitigate potential liabilities through reliance on indemnity provisions, insurance, and by application to the court for relief is also considered. The discussions cover the claim for: breach of fiduciary duty; liability of third parties; claims for negligence; and managing potential liabilities.

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Out of the estimated 950,000 personal injuries claims each year in the UK, about 750,000 cases arise from road traffic accidents (RTAs), 90,000 are employers’ liability cases (EL), and 100,000 are public liability cases (PL). About 90% of these are cases where the damages are estimated at below £25,000. This chapter discusses cases covered by the RTA and EL/PL protocols; the provisions of the RTA protocol; the process under the RTA protocol: claim notification, medical evidence and negotiation, and Part 8 claim to determine quantum; child settlement applications; fixed costs under the RTA and EL/PL protocols; and cases where parties can stop following the RTA or EL/PL protocols.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nature of liability for breach of trust. Trusts impose obligations on the trustees, and the trustees can be held liable for breach of trust if their failure to meet the obligations imposed upon them causes a loss. The liability of a trustee for a breach of trust is a personal liability, and any remedy is available only against the trustee as an individual, and not against any specific assets. If the trustee in breach has died, their personal liability continues against their estate. There may be separate remedies in relation to any assets retained by the trustee or in the hands of a third party, and different remedies are also available for breach of fiduciary duty.

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This chapter discusses a general approach to issues of causation in criminal law. Causation is an important feature in the study of crimes. It is especially so in cases of strict liability where, in the absence of mens rea elements, disputes over causation become the most critical issue in determining liability. The chapter examines some recent Supreme Court judgments in which the court has emphasized the important relationship between causation and fault.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nature of liability for breach of trust. Trusts impose obligations on the trustees, and the trustees can be held liable for breach of trust if their failure to meet the obligations imposed upon them causes a loss. The liability of a trustee for a breach of trust is a personal liability, and any remedy is available only against the trustee as an individual, and not against any specific assets. If the trustee in breach has died, their personal liability continues against their estate. There may be separate remedies in relation to any assets retained by the trustee or in the hands of a third party, and different remedies are also available for breach of fiduciary duty.

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This chapter outlines the development of the state liability doctrine under European Union (EU) law following the Francovich v Italy case. It explains that the principle of state liability provides individuals with a tool before their national courts to secure the enforcement of their rights under EU law. The chapter examines the scope and the conditions for liability; the criterion of a ‘sufficiently serious’ breach laid down in subsequent cases such as Brasserie du Pêcheur and Factortame and considers that there may be many hurdles to overcome in establishing a successful claim. It analyses its relationship with other Treaty provisions dealing with non-contractual liability.

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T C Hartley

This chapter discusses the liability of the Union in contract, for restitution, and in tort. It also considers liability for acts intended to have legal effects and concurrent liability.

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Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the liability of parties who participate in the criminal acts of others. Liability can be split into four parts: those who are accessories, those who are joint perpetrators, those who are vicariously liable, and those who are corporations. Accessories are those who aid, abet, counsel, or procure the commission of the principal offence. Participants who enter a joint venture (also known as a joint unlawful enterprise) are liable for the crimes committed as part of that venture, unless one of the parties deliberately departs from the agreed plan. The doctrine of vicarious liability has a (limited) role in the criminal law. A corporation is a legal person, so criminal liability can be imposed on a corporation for many (although not all) crimes.

Chapter

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and contextual, Criminal Law provides a succinct overview of the key areas on the law curriculum balanced with thought-provoking contextual discussion. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the employer–employee relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable, even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or employees.

Chapter

Michael J. Allen and Ian Edwards

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the meaning of accomplices, vicarious liability, joint enterprise liability, and corporate liability. All the parties to a crime are accomplices. The person who perpetrates the crime is referred to as the principal. Others, not being principals, who participate in the commission of an offence are referred to as accessories or secondary parties and will be liable to conviction if it is proved that they aided, abetted, counselled, or procured the commission of the crime by the principal. Vicarious liability is a form of strict liability arising from the master–servant relationship, without reference to any fault of the employer. A corporation is a legal person and therefore may be criminally liable even though it has no physical existence and cannot act or think except through its directors or servants.

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This chapter examines the law governing incorporation and bodies corporate. It explains that corporate bodies are called such because they are created via the process of incorporation and have corporate personality (and are therefore legal persons), and these types of business entities come in two principal forms, namely companies and limited liability partnerships. It discusses the formation and registration process for these types of businesses and the different types of registered companies. This chapter also describes the advantages of incorporation which include corporate personality, limited liability, and perpetual succession and its disadvantages which include civil liability, criminal liability, and potentially complex regulation.

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This chapter explains the statutory requirements with respect to the formation of an LLP and explains the process by which an LLP is incorporated. It explains how, as an incorporated body, an LLP acts through its members and other agents, and how their acts and their potential wrongdoing can be attributed in law to the LLP itself. It addresses the concept of limited liability that is consequent to an LLP's incorporation, and identifies the obligations that are imposed on an LLP arising from limited liability, in terms of registration and publicity.

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This chapter discusses the ways in which organizations and their members might be held liable in criminal law. It covers personal liability of individuals within an organization; vicarious liability; corporate liability: by breaching a statutory duty imposed on the organization, by committing strict liability offences, by being liable for the acts of individuals under the identification doctrine, and the specific statutory liability of organizations for homicide under the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007; and liability of unincorporated associations.

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This chapter discusses how the company acts as a legal person. It covers: contractual liability; corporate capacity; agency and authority in corporate contracting; contracts and the execution of documents; pre-incorporation contracts; corporate gifts; tort liability; criminal liability; whether and in what circumstances knowledge should be imputed to a company or other corporate body; and when attribution can be denied by the company.

Chapter

This chapter discusses occupiers’ liability, which deals with the risks posed, and harms caused, by dangerous places and buildings. In such cases, the occupier of the premises may be liable where a person who comes onto their land is injured in or by unsafe premises if the occupier has not taken reasonable care to ensure that those entering are safe. The general principles of negligence have been incorporated into, and modified by, statute in the form of the Occupiers’ Liability Acts 1957 and 1984. Although the Acts define the circumstances in which a duty of care will be owed (and tell us something as to its extent, as well as matters relating to its discharge and limitation), questions of breach and causation still need to be established by reference to the ordinary principles of negligence.