1-20 of 25 Results

  • Keyword: legal reform x
Clear all

Chapter

This chapter explains how the IRAC method of legal essay writing can be adapted for use with ‘discuss’ type questions, focusing on the following topics: what a ‘discuss’ question is asking you to do; how to structure the ‘discuss’ essay; and how to adapt each of the four IRAC steps (issue, rule, application, conclusion) to ‘discuss’ questions. The discussion also identifies the three basic types of ‘discuss’ questions (legal theory, legal reform and legal history) and describes the best way to approach each particular category of questions and the best types of legal authorities to introduce to do well. Tips on writing legal essays and exams are given.

Chapter

Edwina Higgins and Kathryn Newton

This chapter considers the law and process for seeking a divorce in England and Wales. It examines the current legal framework and the gap between the ‘law in books’ and the practical reality. It looks at the current legal provisions, the criticisms that have been made of them, and whether there are any strengths to the current law. The discussion is placed in the context of divorce statistics in order to determine the link between the divorce law and the divorce rate, and whether this matters. In so doing, the chapter considers how much of a role the state should play in regulating divorce and the place of ‘fault’ in a modern divorce law. It also considers matters of process and procedure, and whether reform of process rather than substantive law is the right focus.

Chapter

This chapter starts by presenting a brief sketch of the key stages and decisions of the criminal process which forms part of the English criminal justice system. The significance of those stages and decisions is discussed before they are then classified according to their nature and consequence. This is followed in the next section by differentiating between the criminal process and the system before moving on to orient the reader by outlining significant reforms that have shaped the criminal process in the past decades. There is a final concluding section.

Chapter

This chapter addresses the issues and arguments surrounding access to justice. The chapter considers the recent reforms and proposed changes to legal aid provision. There is an outline of the basic principles relating to public funding in both civil and criminal cases. Different methods of funding civil legal representation are discussed including CFAs and DBAs. Organisations involved in giving legal advice on a pro bono basis, including Citizens Advice Bureaux and law centres, are also included. in the discussion about the availability of legal advice. The chapter aims to stimulate thought about the idea of access to justice and whether such access is fair and open to all in England and Wales.

Chapter

This chapter addresses the issues and arguments surrounding access to justice. The chapter considers changes and proposed changes to legal aid provision. There is an outline of the basic principles relating to public funding in both civil and criminal cases. Different methods of funding civil legal representation are discussed including CFAs and DBAs. Organizations involved in giving legal advice, including Citizens Advice and law centres, are also included in the discussion about the availability of legal advice.

Chapter

The final chapter of this book reflects further on how the legal system has changed and will continue to develop going forwards. The dramatic changes that have been made over the past 20+ years are grouped under two broad headings: modernization and austerity. Looking to the future, the immediate challenge is to finish the Transformation Programme and to deal with the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Other issues include: dealing with the criminal justice system; increasing support for legal advice services; and improving public legal education. The chapter argues that lawyers should not fear change, but exploit the opportunities that arise.

Chapter

This final chapter reflects further on the theme, pervasive throughout the book of the transformation of the legal system over the last 20 years. It reflects on the pressures that have underpinned the transformation agenda. It examines the political, financial, and competitive pressures that have led to the need for reform. It contemplates the further changes that are now in progress. The chapter highlights the challenges that the transformation programme must face, stressing in particular the need to ensure much improved access to justice. It considers briefly the importance of public legal education in helping people understand their legal rights and obligations and the need for a properly funded programme of public legal education.

Chapter

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Andclare Ovey

This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It suggests that the principal achievement of the Convention has been the establishment of a formal system of legal protection available to individuals covering a range of civil and political rights which has become the European standard. The chapter highlights the measures taken by the Court to decrease its case load and increase tis efficiency in dealing with applications. It also highlights the contemporary challenges facing the Court.

Chapter

This chapter sums up the key findings of this study on the Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It suggests that the principal achievement of the Convention has been the establishment of a formal system of legal protection available to individuals covering a range of civil and political rights which has become the European standard. The chapter highlights the measures taken by the Court to decrease its caseload and increase its efficiency in dealing with applications. It also highlights the contemporary challenges facing the Court, including the relationship between States and the Court, the challenge of the rise of authoritarian governments, and the threats to rights protection from the climate crisis.

Chapter

An easement is a form of third-party right that allows one to enjoy the benefits of land ownership. Some examples of such rights are rights of way, rights of light, the right to use a washing line on a neighbour’s land, the right to use a neighbour’s lavatory, and the right to park a car on another person’s land. The easement must exist for the benefit of land and cannot exist in gross. This chapter, which explores the nature of easements and considers their related concepts such as natural rights, public rights, restrictive covenants, and licences, also discusses legal and equitable easements, the creation of easements, and proposals for reform of the law on easements.

Chapter

An easement is a form of third party right that allows one to enjoy the benefits of land ownership. Some examples of such rights are rights of way, rights of light, the right to use a washing line on a neighbour’s land, the right to use a neighbour’s lavatory, and the right to park a car on another person’s land. The easement must exist for the benefit of land and cannot exist in gross. The rule that an easement cannot exist in gross has been a controversial subject. This chapter, which explores the nature of easements and considers their related concepts such as natural rights, public rights, restrictive covenants, and licences, also discusses legal and equitable easements, the creation of easements, and proposals for reform of the law on easements.

Book

This book focuses on substantive criminal law, that is, how offences such as theft and murder are defined. This introductory chapter sets in context criminal offences and defences, first by considering the basis upon which certain conduct is criminalised and other conduct is not. It then outlines the reasons why people commit crimes, which types of people commit them, and whether certain groups are over-represented in criminal statistics. It also discusses the role of evidence in assessing how well criminal offences can be proved in practice; the punishments for committing crimes; the difference between criminal and civil law; the process and procedure to obtain a criminal conviction; sources of the substantive criminal law; the internal structure of offences and defences; principles of the substantive criminal law and the subjects to which it applies; legal reform; and the application of the current law.

Chapter

John Child and David Ormerod

This book focuses on substantive criminal law, that is, how offences such as theft and murder are defined. This introductory chapter sets in context criminal offences and defences, first by considering the basis upon which certain conduct is criminalised and other conduct is not. It then outlines the reasons why people commit crimes, which types of people commit them, and whether certain groups are over-represented in criminal statistics. It also discusses the role of evidence in assessing how well criminal offences can be proved in practice; the punishments for committing crimes; the difference between criminal and civil law; the process and procedure to obtain a criminal conviction; sources of the substantive criminal law; the internal structure of offences and defences; principles of the substantive criminal law and the subjects to which it applies; legal reform; and the application of the current law.

Chapter

John Child and David Ormerod

This chapter deals with fraud, an offence under section 1 of the Fraud Act 2006 (FA 2006). It first discusses the central fraud offence, which can be committed by false representation, failure to disclose information, and/or abuse of position. The chapter then moves to consider related offences of obtaining services dishonestly and possession of articles for use in frauds, along with other fraud and deception offences. Finally, the chapter outlines potential options for legal reform concerning the drafting of FA 2006, fraud and the irrelevance of results, and distinguishing theft and fraud, as well as the potential application of fraud offences within a problem question. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

John Child and David Ormerod

This chapter provides an overview of actus reus, which refers to the ‘external elements’ of an offence. An actus reus is not simply about the movements of the accused, that is, her conduct. Rather, it includes any offence requirement that is external from the mind of the accused: anything that is not mens rea. Before discussing the elements that form the actus reus, this chapter considers the distinction between actus reus and mens rea. It then describes the three elements of actus reus: conduct, circumstances, and results. It also explains the categories of actus reus offences, omissions liability, and causation before concluding with sections that outline potential options for legal reform and a structure for analysing the actus reus of an offence when applying the law in a problem-type question. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with a brief summary of the main facts and judgment.

Chapter

This chapter provides an overview of actus reus, which refers to the ‘external elements’ of an offence. These external elements do not simply relate to D’s conduct. Rather, as we will see, the actus reus of an offence includes any offence elements outside of the fault element (‘mens rea’) of the offence. Before discussing the elements that form the actus reus, this chapter considers the distinction between actus reus and mens rea. It then describes the three elements of actus reus: conduct, circumstances, and results. It also explains the categories of actus reus offences, omissions liability, and causation before concluding with sections that outline potential options for legal reform and a structure for analysing the actus reus of an offence when applying the law in a problem-type question. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout the chapter, with a brief summary of the main facts and judgment.

Chapter

This book focuses on substantive criminal law, that is, how offences such as theft and murder are defined. This introductory chapter sets in context criminal offences and defences, first by considering the basis upon which certain conduct is criminalised and other conduct is not. In continuing to set the context, the chapter goes on to consider criminal justice and criminology; criminal evidence; criminal process (including the court structure and central actors); sentencing; civil law protections; and so on. Narrowing to our focus on substantive criminal law—how offences and defences are defined—the chapter moves on to discuss the sources of criminal law; the internal structure of offences and defences; principles of the substantive criminal law; and the subjects to which it applies. Finally, the chapter introduces features on reform and legal application.

Chapter

This chapter deals with fraud, an offence under section 1 of the Fraud Act 2006 (FA 2006). It first discusses the central fraud offence, which can be committed by false representation, failure to disclose information, and/or abuse of position. The chapter then moves to consider related offences of obtaining services dishonestly and possession of articles for use in frauds, along with other fraud and deception offences. Finally, the chapter outlines potential options for legal reform concerning the drafting of FA 2006, fraud and the irrelevance of results, and distinguishing theft and fraud; as well as the potential application of fraud offences within a problem question. Relevant cases are highlighted throughout, with brief summaries of the main facts and judgments.

Chapter

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter deals with possessory security. It begins with a discussion of a pledge (which normally secures repayment of a debt but, in principle, there is no reason why it should not secure performance by the pledgor of some other obligation), before considering the concepts of delivery and re-delivery of possession. It also examines re-pledge by the pledgee, realisation, and statutory control before turning to liens. In particular, it explains how a lien arises and how it is enforced, terminated, and registered. Finally, it looks at the proposed legal reform with respect to possessory security.

Chapter

Edwina Higgins and Kathryn Newton

This chapter considers the law and process for seeking a divorce in England and Wales, which is due to change radically in April 2022. It examines the current legal framework (as of September 2021) and the gap between the ‘law in books’ and the practical reality, highlighted in the key Supreme Court case Owens v Owens [2018] UKSC 41. It contrasts the conduct-based provisions of the current law with the ‘no fault’ provisions due to be introduced in 2022. It discusses the criticisms that have been made of the conduct-based law, and why there was pressure for reform. The discussion is placed in the context of divorce statistics in order to determine the link between the divorce law and the divorce rate, and whether this matters. In so doing, the chapter considers how much of a role the state should play in regulating divorce and the place of ‘fault’ in a modern divorce law. It also considers matters of process and procedure.