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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

14. Pursuing Appropriate Remedies  

The main purpose of most litigation is to secure a remedy or relief. That is the reason why the claimant starts the action, and it should be the focus of many decisions relating to the case. From the first contact with the client, lawyers must be clear about what the client really wants to achieve, and decisions about causes of action, evidence, and interim applications should focus on the remedies and relief being pursued. This chapter discusses the remedies a court can and cannot order; claims for damages; quantification of damages; and claims for interest on top of claims for the payment of a sum of money or damages. The final section covers the importance of taking a proactive approach to claiming and quantifying damages.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

31. Disclosure  

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) require the parties to give advance notice to their opponents of all the material documentation in their control. This is done in two stages. At the first stage the parties send each other lists of documents, a process called ‘disclosure’. The second stage is ‘inspection’, which is the process by which the other side can request copies of documents appearing in the list of documents, typically with photocopies being provided by the disclosing party. This chapter discusses these processes. It covers lawyers’ and clients’ responsibilities; the stage when disclosure takes place; disclosure orders; standard disclosure; menu option disclosure; duty to search; list of documents; privilege; inspection; orders in support of disclosure; documents referred to in statements of case, etc.; admission of authenticity; and collateral use.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

11. Making Strategic Use of the Pre-Action Stage  

This chapter focuses on the pre-action stage of the litigation process. Most civil disputes are settled prior to the issue of any proceedings. Save where a pre-issue application is appropriate, no court will be involved. Nonetheless the approach taken to resolving the dispute will be shaped to a significant extent by the view a court might take if proceedings were to be issued. The chapter discusses the Practice Direction Pre-Action Conduct, which seeks to enable parties to settle disputes without the need to start proceedings, and to support the efficient management by the; pre-action protocols, which set out the steps that the parties should follow before issuing proceedings; steps in preparing a case; forming the relationship with the other side; deciding when to issue proceedings; and portal claims.

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

10. Litigation  

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The attitude that anything that helps a client to win in litigation is justified is rarely accepted these days, and there is a need for lawyers to weigh up their duties to the court and to their clients. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. This can create tensions for lawyers between their duties to their clients and their duties the justice system and to the general public. The chapter also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

Cover Legal Ethics

9. Litigation  

This chapter explores the ethical issues that arise around litigation. It discusses theories of litigation, including disputes over whether litigation is ‘good’. The chapter covers the adversarial system of litigation in England and Wales, and inquisitorial adjudication. It also covers both criminal and civil litigation proceedings. In addition, the chapter considers advocacy services and the duties that litigators owe to the court.

Chapter

Cover Clarkson & Hill's Conflict of Laws

2. Civil jurisdiction  

Jonathan Hill

This chapter addresses the English court's jurisdiction other than in family law matters and excluding a few other kinds of proceedings. There are two types of claim which may be commenced in England: claims in personam and admiralty claims in rem. A claim inpersonam is one in which the claimant seeks a judgment requiring the defendant to pay money, deliver property or do, or refrain from doing, some other act. A claimant who wishes to commence proceedings in personam must be able to serve a claim form on the defendant — either in England or abroad. Admiralty proceedings in rem are directed against property, usually a ship. A typical case is where the claimant has a claim against a ship-owner in respect of his ship — for example, where the claimant's cargo has been damaged as a result of the negligent navigation of the vessel. The remainder of the chapter discusses the bases of jurisdiction in personam; declining jurisdiction and staying proceedings; provisional measure designed to maintain the status quo pending the outcome of the dispute between the parties; and restraining foreign proceedings.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

22. Privilege  

This chapter discusses several well-established principles whereby relevant evidence is excluded because of extrinsic considerations which outweigh the value that the evidence would have at trial. Three types of privilege are considered: (i) the privilege against self-incrimination (including statutory withdrawal of the privilege, compatibility with Art 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the compulsory production of pre-existing documents and materials, and substituted protection); (ii) legal professional privilege, which enables a client to protect the confidentiality of (a) communications between him and his lawyer made for the purpose of obtaining and giving legal advice (known as ‘legal advice privilege’) and (b) communications between him or his lawyer and third parties for the dominant purpose of preparation for pending or contemplated litigation (known as ‘litigation privilege’); and (iii) ‘without prejudice’ privilege, which enables settlement negotiations to be conducted without fear of proposed concessions being used in evidence at trial as admissions.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

15. Issuing Proceedings, Track Allocation, and Directions  

This chapter begins with a discussion of court selection. The issue of proceedings, and to some extent the choice of court, is increasingly being streamlined, with the procedure for County Court money claims and bulk claims being moved online. For the larger multi-track cases, however, the High Court and the County Court have concurrent jurisdiction for many types of proceedings. The chapter then explains the issuance of the claim form, which marks the start of formal litigation; the service of proceedings, i.e. the formal process by which the defendant is notified of the claim; the claimant's selection of the court in which the claim is brought; and the court's allocation of the case to a particular ‘track’. The final section deals with the directions questionnaire (form N180), which should not be seen as a formality but as a key step in defining how the case should move forward.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

6. Issuing and Serving  

Civil proceedings commence with the issuance of a claim form. Issuing a claim involves the court sealing the claim form with its official seal. This chapter discusses issuing and serving proceedings. It covers the claim form; jurisdictional endorsements; particulars of claim; specialist claims; issuing a claim form; service of the claim form; deemed date of service of the claim form; service of documents other than a claim form; deemed date of service (non-claim form documents); certificate of service; irregular service; and filing of documents at court.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

1. Introduction  

The civil courts perform the important function of resolving disputes that cannot be resolved by agreement between the parties. This introductory chapter briefly sets out the book’s focus, namely the mechanics of how legal and equitable rights are asserted, determined, and enforced through the civil courts. It then discusses the legal profession, lawyers’ duties, initial instructions, confidentiality and conflict of interest, pre-action correspondence, and the main stages in court proceedings.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

16. Costs Management  

Costs management refers to the procedures used by the courts to manage the steps to be taken in civil proceedings while also managing the costs to be incurred by the parties in taking those steps to ensure that litigation is conducted at proportionate cost. This chapter discusses the elements of costs management; cases governed by costs management; costs management orders; costs budgets and case management; judicial control of costs budgets; and impact on costs orders.

Chapter

Cover Birnie, Boyle, and Redgwell's International Law and the Environment

4. State Responsibility, Treaty Compliance, and Dispute Settlement  

This chapter looks at the number of ways that secure compliance with international environmental law can be employed. The more traditional approach to this subject is the familiar one of interstate claims for breach of international obligations, employing the variety of forms of dispute settlement machinery contemplated in Article 33 of the UN Charter. There are a number of disadvantages to enforcing international environmental law in this manner, particularly if it involves compulsory resort to judicial institutions. The chapter outlines these disadvantages which include the adverse effect on relations between the relevant states; the complexity, length, and expense of international litigation; the technical character of environmental problems, and the difficulties of proof which legal proceedings may entail, and uncertainty concerning jurisdiction and applicable law in legally complex disputes.

Chapter

Cover Jacobs, White, and Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights

12. The Right to a Fair Trial in Civil and Criminal Cases  

This chapter examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) on the right to a fair trial in criminal and civil cases, explaining that Article 6 of ECHR holds that the Strasbourg Court has no jurisdiction to reopen national legal proceedings or to substitute its own findings of fact for the conclusions of national courts. The chapter examines the interpretation by the Strasbourg Court of the protections provided by Article 6 in the extensive jurisprudence on this Article and discusses issues concerning the overall requirements of a fair hearing, right of access to court, and the extraterritorial effect of Article 6.

Chapter

Cover Civil Liberties & Human Rights

5. Right to a Fair Trial: Article 6  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter discusses the right to a fair trial. It first examines the obligations imposed on States by Art. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) in relation to this right. It then focuses on a particular threat to a fair trial, in the form of the reporting of imminent or current legal proceedings, which may raise a risk that the outcome of those proceedings will be adversely affected. This is dealt with in English law primarily by the offence of contempt of court. The final section deals with a particular type of contempt related to the extent to which a court can compel a journalist to disclose his or her source.

Chapter

Cover Bromley's Family Law

15. Children’s Participation in Family Proceedings  

N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor

This chapter considers the increasingly important question of children’s participation in proceedings concerning them. It evaluates children’s right to participate in proceedings both as a matter of domestic and international law. It then assesses the complex law as to how children’s views are ascertained and the circumstances in which children will be represented both in private and public law. It then turns to children’s direct participation in family proceedings including children’s ability to initiate proceedings.