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Chapter

This chapter studies breach of confidence. In the United Kingdom, the area of breach of confidence has traditionally been used to protect ideas and information, including trade secrets. The doctrine of breach of confidence is judge-made law, rooted in equitable principles. In consequence, it has developed in a piecemeal, and sometimes contradictory fashion, so that the rationale for the action has not always been clear. Nevertheless, the law of confidence is broad enough in the United Kingdom to encompass: the common definition of a trade secret (commercial, usually technical information); personal, private information which may also have a commercial value (including information which may be protected under the right to privacy under Art. 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)); and information protected by the state. The chapter then looks at the role of trade secrets in intellectual property law and considers the EU Trade Secrets Directive.

Chapter

The right of privacy under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights was incorporated into English law by the Human Rights Act 1998, but English law as yet recognises no tort of invasion of privacy as such. Admittedly, a number of specific torts protect particular aspects of privacy, but this protection may be regarded as haphazard, incidental, and incomplete. Recent decisions, however, have seen substantial developments in the protection given to particular privacy interests, above all by adapting the law of breach of confidence to provide a remedy against the unauthorised disclosure of personal information. These issues are discussed in this chapter.

Chapter

This chapter discusses violations of human privacy by private individuals and organisations. This is a rapidly evolving area of the law, one which has, like defamation, been influenced to a great extent by developments in communication technology, as well as in human rights law. And like defamation, this area of the law too raises important questions about the role, and conduct, of the press. The discussion in this chapter is divided as follows: (1) the difficulties of defining privacy; (2) the casuistic protection afforded by English law; (3) the protection afforded in the most important types of cases; (4) the growth of breach of confidence after the entry into force of the Human Rights Act 1998 and the emergence in recent years of the ‘distinct’ tort of misuse of private information; (5) Europe and beyond.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nascent ‘tort’ of invasion of privacy. It first considers why no free-standing tort of invasion of privacy exists, before looking at breach of confidence—a legal concept straddling tort and equity and concerned with ‘secrets’ and judicially adapted to protect privacy by developing the new tort of misuse of private information. The chapter then asks whether developments in the law protecting privacy—particularly in the wake of the Human Rights Act 1998—threaten freedom of expression and therefore the general public’s ‘right’ to information, particularly about celebrities, including royalty and politicians.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nascent ‘tort’ of invasion of privacy. It first considers why no free-standing tort of invasion of privacy exists, before looking at breach of confidence—a legal concept straddling tort and equity and concerned with ‘secrets’ and judicially adapted to protect privacy by developing the new tort of misuse of private information. The chapter then asks whether developments in the law protecting privacy—particularly in the wake of the Human Rights Act 1998—threaten freedom of expression and therefore the general public’s ‘right’ to information, particularly about celebrities, including royalty and politicians.

Chapter

The Q&A series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each chapter includes typical questions, diagram problem and essay answer plans, suggested answers, notes of caution, tips on obtaining extra marks, the key debates on each topic, and suggestions on further reading. This chapter moves on from the previous one to examine the freedom of expression. Under common law, freedom of speech is guaranteed unless the speaker breaks the law, but this is now reinforced by the right of free expression under the European Convention on Human Rights. The questions here deal with issues such as obscenity law and contempt of court; the Official Secrets Act; freedom of information; data protection; breach of confidence; and whether there is a right of privacy in English law.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. Another contribution of Equity to the common law landscape is the invention of several new and uniquely structured obligations, which restrict individual autonomy in special and rather aggressive ways. This chapter considers obligations that constrain the defendant's autonomy even when his impugned behaviour has caused the claimant no harm. It focuses on Equity's proscriptive rules. The best known are Equity's fiduciary obligations, which demand loyalty and self-denial from trustees and others whose roles entitle them to exercise discretion in managing property belonging to another. More generally, Equity regulates the exercise of all powers that are intended to affect the interests of others, regardless of whether the affected interests are proprietary or not. These are Equity's rules on abuse of power. Finally, Equity has particular strategies to regulate the use of information. These are Equity's rules on breach of confidence.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Public Law Concentrate looks at all aspects relevant to constitutional law including sources, the rule of law, and separation of powers. It details the role of the executive, constitutional monarchy, and the Royal Prerogative. It also looks at sovereignty of Parliament and European Union law. It covers topics such as administrative law, judicial review, human rights, police powers, public order, and terrorism. This new edition examines the constitutional issues raised by and the legal effect of the provisions of the European Referendum Act 2015, the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Act 2017, the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018, and the proposed European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Bill. It also looks at the constitutional status of the Sewel Convention, legislative consent motion procedure, the use of secondary legislation by the executive to amend law and the separation of powers implications of Henry VIII Clauses, the constitutional role of the House of Lords in scrutinizing and amending primary legislation, the Speakers' Ruling in the House of Commons on Points of Order and the Contempt of Parliament Motion, the whip system, back bench revolts, confidence and supply agreements in government formation, and the current state of legislative and executive devolution in Northern Ireland. There are also full details of the key principle in the decision of the Court of Justice of the European Union in Wightman v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union [2018] SLT 959.

Book

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Public Law Concentrate looks at all aspects of constitutional law including sources, rule of law, separation of powers, role of the executive, constitutional monarchy, and the Royal Prerogative. It also discusses parliamentary sovereignty and the changing constitutional relationship between the UK and the EU together with the status of EU retained and converted law under the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 as amended by the 2020 Act, the Agreement on Trade and Cooperation effective from 1 January 2021, and the European Union (Future Relationship) Act 2020. Also covered are: administrative law, judicial review, human rights, police powers, public order, terrorism, the constitutional status of the Sewel Convention, legislative consent motion procedure, use of secondary legislation by the executive to amend law and make regulations creating criminal offences, especially under the Coronavirus Act 2020 and the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984, the separation of powers implications of Henry VIII Clauses, the constitutional role of the Horuse of Lords in scrutinizing and amending primary legislation, the Speakers’ Ruling in the House of Commons on Points of Order and the Contempt of Parliament Motion, whip system, back bench revolts, confidence and supply agreements in government formation, and current legislative and executive devolution in Northern Ireland. The book additionally examines the continuing impact of the HRA 1998 and the European Court of Human Rights on parliamentary sovereignty and the significance of the 2021 Independent Review of the HRA.