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Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses freehold covenants. Freehold covenants are promises extracted by one freehold owner (the covenantee) from another freehold owner (the covenantor), whereby the latter promises either to do (positive covenant) or not to do (negative covenant) something over his land. The land burdened by the promise becomes the servient tenement. The land benefiting from the promise becomes the dominant tenement. Covenants commonly arise when a freehold owner is selling off part of his freehold to another and wishes to maintain some degree of control over the land being sold in order to preserve the value and enjoyment of the land he is retaining. Covenants may be enforceable between successors in title to the original covenantee and covenantor but only where certain requirements have been met.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses proprietary rights. These govern people’s ability to use and enjoy both land they physically possess and land physically possessed by others. Whilst technically all land is owned by the Crown, holding an estate in land, and in particular a freehold estate that gives one rights to possess, enjoy, and use the land forever, is tantamount to actual ownership. The other type of proprietary right is an interest in land. Whilst an estate gives one a slice of time to use and enjoy land one physically possesses, an interest gives the right to use and enjoy land physically possessed by another. Proprietary rights can be either legal or equitable in status.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses proprietary rights. These govern people’s ability to use and enjoy both land they physically possess and land physically possessed by others. Whilst technically all land is owned by the Crown, holding an estate in land, and in particular a freehold estate that gives one rights to possess, enjoy, and use the land forever, is tantamount to actual ownership. The other type of proprietary right is an interest in land. Whilst an estate gives one a slice of time to use and enjoy land one physically possesses, an interest gives the right to use and enjoy land physically possessed by another. Proprietary rights can be either legal or equitable in status.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses freehold covenants. Freehold covenants are promises extracted by one freehold owner (the covenantee) from another freehold owner (the covenantor), whereby the latter promises either to do (positive covenant) or not to do (negative covenant) something over his land. The land burdened by the promise becomes the servient tenement. The land benefiting from the promise becomes the dominant tenement. Covenants commonly arise when a freehold owner is selling off part of his freehold to another and wishes to maintain some degree of control over the land being sold in order to preserve the value and enjoyment of the land he is retaining. Covenants may be enforceable between successors in title to the original covenantee and covenantor but only where certain requirements have been met.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses easements. An easement gives either a positive or, less often, a negative right of use over land of another (the servient land), which must be seen to benefit a dominant piece of land. A right that is capable of being an easement will only become an easement where it has been acquired by one of the recognised methods of acquisition. Easements may arise through express or implied acquisition. Implied acquisition may arise by virtue of necessity, common intention, operation of s 62 Law of Property Act (LPA) 1925 or under the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows (although the latter two methods will not operate in a reservation scenario). Alternatively, an easement may have been acquired out of long use, known as prescription, of which there are three modes: common law, lost modern grant, and the Prescription Act 1832. An easement can be either legal or equitable in status, depending upon which formalities have been satisfied. The status of an easement will determine the relevant rules governing the enforcement of that interest against a third party.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses easements. An easement gives either a positive or, less often, a negative right of use over land of another (the servient land), which must be seen to benefit a dominant piece of land. A right that is capable of being an easement will only become an easement where it has been acquired by one of the recognised methods of acquisition. Easements may arise through express or implied acquisition. Implied acquisition may arise by virtue of necessity, common intention, operation of s 62 Law of Property Act (LPA) 1925, or under the rule in Wheeldon v Burrows (although the latter two methods will not operate in a reservation scenario). Alternatively, an easement may have been acquired out of long use, known as prescription, of which there are three modes: common law, lost modern grant, and the Prescription Act 1832. An easement can be either legal or equitable in status, depending upon which formalities have been satisfied. The status of an easement will determine the relevant rules governing the enforcement of that interest against a third party.

Chapter

This chapter examines the rule from Rylands v Fletcher [1868]. The rule holds that where there has been an escape of a dangerous thing in the course of a non-natural use of land, the occupier of that land is liable for the damage to another caused as a result of the escape, irrespective of fault. The rule today is best understood through a trilogy of cases: Rylands v Fletcher, Cambridge Water Co Ltd v Eastern Counties Leather plc [1994] and Transco v Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council [2004]. The development of the rule has led to an increased overlap with ideas from nuisance and negligence.

Chapter

This chapter examines the rule in Rylands v. Fletcher, a rule which remains controversial to this day. The rule states that anyone who, in the course of a ‘non-natural’ use of his land ‘accumulates’ thereon for his own purposes anything likely to do mischief if it escapes, is answerable for all direct damage thereby caused. It discusses the requirements for liability, the various controlling mechanisms used to limit the scope of the rule; what and whose interests are protected by it; and the relationship between Rylands v. Fletcher and private nuisance. The chapter also explores the important questions that the rule in Rylands v. Fletcher raises about the nature, and future, of strict liability in the law of tort in general.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Rylands v Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 330. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Rylands v Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 330. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Rylands v Fletcher (1868) LR 3 HL 330. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

This chapter examines the torts of private and public nuisance. It explains that the tort of private nuisance protects rights in the use of land, rights in the enjoyment of land, and rights in land itself. It permits actions with respect to physical interference with land as well as with sensible personal comfort in its use and enjoyment. The chapter highlights the difficulty in establishing whether private nuisance constitutes a tort of strict liability. This chapter also discusses the elements of public nuisance, which again is a difficult tort to analyse but which is concerned with interference with public rights, such as the right to pass and re-pass along the highway.

Chapter

This chapter examines the provisions of tort law concerning private and public nuisance. It explains that the tort of private nuisance protects rights in the use of land, rights in the enjoyment of land, and rights in land itself so as to protect against physical damage to land. It highlights the difficulty in establishing whether private nuisance constitutes a tort of strict liability. This chapter also discusses the elements of public nuisance, which again is a difficult tort to analyse.

Chapter

This chapter examines the rule from Rylands v Fletcher [1868]. The rule holds that where there has been an escape of a dangerous thing in the course of a non-natural use of land, the occupier of that land is liable for the damage to another caused as a result of the escape, irrespective of fault. The rule today is best understood through a trilogy of cases: Rylands v Fletcher, Cambridge Water Co Ltd v Eastern Counties Leather plc [1994] and Transco v Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council [2004]. The development of the rule has led to an increased overlap with ideas from nuisance and negligence.

Chapter

People who wish to develop their land, or build upon it, must obtain planning permission, applications for which are made public and those who may be affected by the action may make representations. The law governing this area is a highly complex one and involves the public control of land use. Private control of land use involves landowners seeking to regulate how land is used within a particular locality. This chapter deals with covenants made between freeholders and how successors in title to the original parties to the covenant can either acquire the benefit of a covenant or take subject to the burden of it. It first discusses the privity of contract before turning to the transmission of covenants, common law, equity, and restrictive covenants, and also considers remedies available in case a breach of covenant arises, discharge of covenants, and positive covenants.

Chapter

People who wish to develop their land, or build upon it, must obtain planning permission, applications for which are made public and those who may be affected by the action may make representations. The law governing this area is a highly complex one and involves the public control of land use. Private control of land use involves landowners seeking to regulate how land is used within a particular locality. This chapter deals with covenants made between freeholders and how successors in title to the original parties to the covenant can either acquire the benefit of a covenant or take subject to the burden of it. It first discusses the privity of contract before turning to the transmission of covenants, common law, equity, and restrictive covenants, and also considers remedies available in case a breach of covenant arises, discharge of covenants, and positive covenants.