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Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter considers banks' securities activities. Many banks have compensated for the decline in traditional finance by emphasizing their securities activities. These range from the traditional task of investment banks in advising, underwriting, and distributing new issues of securities, through to dealing on their own account on securities and derivatives markets — proprietary trading. In the decade leading up to the Global Financial Crisis, banks also played a significant role in introducing new products to these markets, including asset-backed securities and credit derivatives. The onset of the crisis provoked intense scrutiny and widespread criticism of many of these activities, and led to the introduction of significant controls on the ability of banks to engage in them. The chapter discusses types of securities, subordination, and custody; distributing securities issues; and securities regulation.

Chapter

Paola Gaeta, Jorge E. Viñuales, and Salvatore Zappalà

This chapter discusses the historical development and contemporary operation of international economic law, with a focus on trade, development, and monetary and investment relations. It pays particular attention to the emergence of the system with the 1944 Bretton Woods Conferences establishing the IMF and the World Bank, the adoption of the GATT in 1947, the revindications and influence of developing countries on the evolution of the system (with the declaration of a New International Economic Order), and the contemporary law of international trade (under the World Trade Organization) and foreign investment transactions (under investment agreements protected by investment arbitration organized under the ICSID).

Chapter

This chapter discusses the role and composition of the institutions of the EU. These include the European Council, the Council, the Commission, the European Parliament, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and the General Court, the Court of Auditors, the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), the Committee of the Regions (COR), the European Investment Bank and the European Central Bank. This chapter also discusses the EU’s associated bodies or agencies as well as their respective roles and the ways in which they interrelate with the EU institutions.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the institutions of the EU and associated bodies. These include the European Council, the Council, the Commission, the European Parliament, the Court of Justice of the European Union and the General Court, the Court of Auditors, the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), the Committee of the Regions (COR), the European Investment Bank, and the European Central Bank.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter presents a survey of international economic law. It discusses the creation of the Bretton Woods system, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the Havana Conference. It considers the roles of the World Bank, the International Development Association, the International Finance Corporation, the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization. It also looks into commodity and energy agreements and regional economic arrangements.

Chapter

This concluding chapter discusses international economic law. When discussing ‘international economic law’ one is addressing the international regimes that regulate international trade, investment, and economic development. The multilateral and bilateral treaties in these areas have become the focal point for the global economy today. International economic law developed rapidly since the end of the Second World War, when the 1944 Bretton Woods Accords established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), placing financial institutions at the heart of the post-war settlement. Meanwhile, the law on international trade grew around the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), but today centres on the World Trade Organization in Geneva. International investment law has no equivalent overarching institution, but rather exists as a dense web of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) which have emerged in the last three decades.

Chapter

This concluding chapter discusses international economic law. When discussing ‘international economic law’ one is addressing the international regimes that regulate international trade, investment, and economic development. The multilateral and bilateral treaties in these areas have become the focal point for the global economy today. International economic law developed rapidly since the end of World War II, when the 1944 Bretton Woods Accords established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank), placing financial institutions at the heart of the post-war settlement. Meanwhile, the law on international trade grew around the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), but today centres on the World Trade Organization in Geneva. International investment law has no equivalent overarching institution, but rather exists as a dense web of bilateral investment treaties (BITs) which have emerged in the last three decades.