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Chapter

This chapter considers the international aspects of intellectual property rights. It summarizes the various international conventions, treaties, agreements, and protocols that are in place, all of which are administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization. The chapter also discusses European initiatives in the areas of patents, trade marks, industrial designs, and copyright.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on registered designs. It covers the requirements for the grant of a registered design; grounds for refusal of registration; ownership of a registered design; rights of the owner and infringement; grounds on which a design may be declared invalid; duration of the registered design right; spare parts; international commercial exploitation; and EU law on registered design.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter offers an outlook to the future of IP at the European level. The EU and its legal instruments primarily approach IP from a utilitarian free market perspective and that applies also to the way they look at the future. The chapter focuses primarily on that angle when it looks at how the European IP system could and should function in the future and which direction it is taking. In a sense it offers an opportunity for reflection and attempts to enhance the reader's insight in and understanding of IP by wrapping the critical analysis of its technical rules up in a more theoretical analysis.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on patent infringement and revocation. The grounds on which a patent may be revoked are established by s. 72 of the UK Patents Act 1977. On the issue of infringement, s. 60 of the 1977 Act is the key provision and unusually makes separate, although not dissimilar, provisions for patents that are for products and those that are for processes. Interpretation of claims is a key aspect of any infringement case.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter deals with the legal protection of trade secrets. Traditionally, trade secret protection was left to the national laws of Member States. These national regimes are rooted firmly in existing legal rules in the areas of unfair competition, tort, or breach of confidence. And there is also the “Directive on the protection of undisclosed know-how and business information (trade secrets) against their unlawful acquisition, use, and disclosure”. The Directive seeks to impose on Member States a minimal form of harmonization and uniformity. It does not impose a (Community) right in relation to a trade secret, but it works with a common basic definition of a trade secret, the principle that there needs to be redress for the unlawful acquisition, use, or disclosure of a trade secret, and a catalogue of measures and remedies.

Chapter

This chapter first discusses the two roots of copyright. On the one hand, copyright began as an exclusive right to make copies—that is, to reproduce the work of an author. This entrepreneurial side of copyright is linked in with the invention of the printing press, which made it much easier to copy a literary work and, for the first time, permitted the entrepreneur to make multiple identical copies. On the other hand, it became vital to protect the author now that his or her work could be copied much more easily and in much higher numbers. The chapter then outlines the key concepts on which copyright is based.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on trade mark protection in the United Kingdom and its operation in the context of Internet related activities. Trade marks constitute a key component of the system of intellectual property rights. The present law is to be found in the Trade Marks Act 1994, which was introduced in order to enable the United Kingdom to comply with its obligations under the 1988 EC Directive to Approximate the Laws of the Member States Relating to Trade Marks. The chapter discusses the effect of trade marks; the doctrine of passing off; trade marks and information technology; Internet-related trade mark disputes; the uniform dispute resolution rules; and trade marks and Internet search engines.

Chapter

This chapter considers the nature and manner of operation of the patent system. Patents date back to around the 14th century. For the United Kingdom they began as a means to encourage the importation of foreign skills and technology, fell into disrepute as they were used by monarchs to confer monopolies in respect of the sale of well-known objects such as playing cards and eventually from the late seventeenth century settled into their present role of granting temporary monopolies to those who make inventions. The chapter examines the criteria that will be applied in determining whether an invention is eligible for patent protection and the procedures that will required to be followed in order to obtain this. Unlike copyright which applies effectively on a global basis, the patent system has operated on a national basis. A UK patent will be valid and enforceable in the UK but nowhere else. There are international agreements, however, designed to simplify the task of obtaining protection in a range of countries and the operation of these will be considered as well as the treatment of intellectual property within the General Agreement on Trade in Services and the World Trade Organisation. Within the European Union, the possible introduction of a unitary patent has been the subject of discussion for many years and appears likely to come to fruition in the near future although the involvement of the UK post Brexit is uncertain.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the historical roots of trade marks, the need for reform, and the rationale of a system of trade marks. Over the last decades, trade mark law has been harmonized in Europe; in the UK, the Trade Marks Act 1994 saw a sea change in the law of trade marks.

Chapter

This chapter, which comments on the patent system, argues that while there is sufficient evidence to criticize the patent system, the mere fact that thousands of patents are granted annually suggests that all is not lost. Much of the law functions well and the time taken to grant a patent is a result of painstaking efforts to ensure that the invention fits in with the legal criteria. In so far as the patent system may be criticized, it is clearly having trouble getting to grips with ‘cutting edge’ issues, such as biotechnology, nanotechnology, and synthetic biology. The bottom line is that despite its imperfections, the patent system is a high-quality system involving detailed claims and their full examination.

Chapter

This chapter commences the discussion of the European law of IP by introducing the domestic and international IP systems that preceded and continue to exist alongside it. It starts with the ‘what, how, and why’ of IP law in general—what it is, how it came to be, and why it exists—and proceeds to consider European IP law as part of an international network of IP laws that, while being a product of the domestic IP laws of individual European states, nonetheless differs from those laws in three related aspects. First, unlike domestic IP laws, many international laws operate by establishing legal standards for states to implement within their own territories rather than by regulating the behaviour of those states’ citizens. Second, the need for international legal communities to accommodate the diverse values and legal traditions of their member states makes their IP laws and policies less likely to reflect a single model or justificatory theory of IP than those of individual countries. And third, a central aim of international European IP communities is to supplement or substitute domestic laws and policies with European laws and policies in pursuit of European objectives, including some that stand in tension with domestic interests, such as the abolition of territorial restrictions on the operation of IP regimes.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter looks into preliminary aspect of private international law, focusing on jurisdiction and choice of law. Before enforcement actions can get off the ground we need to know which court will have jurisdiction and which law that court will apply. Jurisdiction is based on the domicile of the defendant as a basic rule, but alternative fora are available. The courts of the place of the harmful event may also have jurisdiction and there are special rules for multiple defendant cases. Validity cases are subject to exclusive jurisdiction rules. In terms of choice of law, the law of the country for which protection is sought takes centre stage when it comes to IP. It is the law applicable to the IP right as such and it also applies to infringement.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the protection which the law affords to unregistered trade marks through the tort of passing off. It covers the definition of passing off; the relationship between passing off and unfair competition; the elements of passing off; and defences to passing off (delay or acquiescence, bona fide use of the defendant’s own name, and concurrent use).

Book

Lionel Bently, Brad Sherman, Dev Gangjee, and Phillip Johnson

Intellectual Property Law provides a detailed analysis of intellectual property law with reference to a wide range of academic opinion, giving a broad context for exploring the key principles of the subject. In this fifth edition, the introduction has been updated to take account of Brexit. Important developments covered include the introduction of a doctrine of equivalents into UK patent law, the reforms of EU trade mark law (particularly with respect to ‘representation’ of marks, and the ‘functionality exclusions’), and the development of the concept of ‘communication to the public’ by the CJEU. The book covers a number of areas of intellectual property law including copyright, patents, the legal regulation of designs, trade marks and passing off, confidential information, and litigation and remedies. The volume includes a new chapter on the tort of misuse of private information.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the protection which the law affords to unregistered trade marks through the tort of passing off. It covers the definition of passing off; the relationship between passing off and unfair competition; the elements of both the classic and the extended form of passing off; the role of customer confusion in passing off and types of confusion, including initial interest confusion as well as reverse passing off; the types of damage resulting for an actionable misrepresentation; and defences to passing off (delay or acquiescence, bona fide use of the defendant’s own name, and concurrent use)

Chapter

This chapter provides an overview of the tension between the application of competition law and the exercise of IPRs. Key issues are the circumstances in which competition law may be applied to moderate the exercise of IPRs in the relevant market; clauses in intellectual property (IP) licensing agreements between undertakings that might be permissible in terms of EU competition law and those which are not; the conditions under which a refusal to supply products protected by an IP right might constitute an abuse of a dominant position by the right holder; and when competition law can provide a defence to an infringement action.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter deals with the enforcement of IP rights. Such enforcement takes place in search of redress and that redress is obtained in the form of remedies. The discussion focuses on remedies at a national level, i.e. the content of the applicable law determined by the court with competent jurisdiction, be it at a procedural or substantive level. It first looks at civil remedies. Civil proceedings brought by private parties are the norm in the enforcement of private rights, and thus take the lion's share of the enforcement and remedies effort in relation to IP rights, since the latter are very clearly private rights. The chapter then turns to criminal remedies. While criminal proceedings do not play an important role in the area of IP, some offences do exist and these types of proceedings are specifically concerned with cases of infringement that are seen as particularly serious from a public policy point of view. Examples include actions against copyright or trade mark pirates.

Chapter

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter examines the question of the limits set on our right to control our bodies or parts thereof. This debate has centred on the very important issue of our relationship with our body, and the status of the body, which has most recently been shaped by ideas of property. The chapter considers three aspects of that debate: property in material taken from living persons; property in material taken from cadavers; and the granting of intellectual property rights in human material.

Chapter

This chapter provides an accessible introduction to intellectual property (IP) law. It provides and challenges some definitions of intellectual property law and IP itself. It discusses the development of IP law as a field of study in an increasingly global context and presents a realistic view of the law as it actually operates; the relationships between different levels of IP law—at national, European, European Union, and international levels; the various influences on the formation, justifications for, and development of IP law including between IP law and other legal fields; and the tensions that arise from different perspectives when the law seeks to protect IP.

Chapter

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter offers a full and critical account of the arguments for and against the existence of IP systems in general, and of European IP systems in particular. It begins by considering two general theories in support of the recognition of IP rights as natural rights: the first casting IP as supporting the personal development and autonomy of individual creators (the argument from personhood), and the second casting IP as securing for creators such rights as they deserve by virtue of their acts of intellectual creation (the argument from desert). From natural law accounts of the existence of IP the chapter goes on to examine three other theories grounded in considerations of justice, utility, and pluralism respectively. According to the first, IP is defensible as a means of preventing people either from being enriched unjustly or from harming others by unfairly ‘reaping where they have not sown’. According to the second, IP rights are privileges conferred by the state on specific individuals in the pursuit of certain instrumentalist ends, such as encouraging socially desirable behaviour on the part of their beneficiaries or discouraging socially undesirable behaviour on the part of those whose freedoms they restrict. And according to the third, IP is a regulatory mechanism by which different understandings and traditions of protecting creative and informational subject matter are reconciled in support of legal and social pluralism. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of the theoretical accounts for the duration of copyright and related rights protection and the patentability of biotechnology.