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This chapter discusses the essential elements of Dworkin’s theory of law. It focuses on Dworkin’s assault on positivism and his insistence upon the close relationship between morals and the law. By denying the positivist separation between law and morals, he expounds a theory that rejects the proposition that judges either do or should make law, and contends instead that judges have an obligation to find and express ‘the soundest theory of law’ on which to decide hard cases; and concludes that, since judges (who are unelected officials) do not make law, the judicial role is democratic and prospective. His approach is based on the notion that only by adopting this view of the judicial function can the law take rights seriously.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the essential elements of Dworkin’s theory of law. It focuses on Dworkin’s assault on positivism. Dworkin denies the positivist separation between law and morals; rejects the proposition that judges either do or should make law; argues that judges must seek ‘the soundest theory of law’ on which to decide hard cases; and concludes that, since judges (who are unelected officials) do not make law, the judicial role is democratic and prospective. A central aspect of his theory is the importance of individual rights based on the idea that everyone is entitled to equal concern and respect. This leads him to analyse closely the concept of equality and its relation to liberty.

Chapter

This chapter assesses moral rights. From a human rights perspective, the distinction between economic and moral rights can be traced back to Art. 27(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The protection of the moral interests of the authors finds justification not only in the context of human rights but also under a special set of copyright rules that offer protection to non-pecuniary interests of the authors. The Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (CPDA) recognises four main moral rights: the right to be identified as the author or director of a work (this is the so-called paternity right); the right to object to derogatory treatment of a work (the so-called integrity right); the right to object to a false attribution of authorship in the case of a literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic work or a film; and the right of privacy in commissioned photographs and films.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses the tort of trespass, which protects and vindicates the basic rights of the citizen against deliberate, even well-meaning, invasion, whether or not any damage is caused. Every positive act which directly invades one of those basic rights is trespassory, and leads to liability unless it is justified in law. The chapter distinguishes between the tort of negligence and the tort of trespass. It then describes the rights protected by the tort of trespass: freedom of movement, bodily integrity, and property in one's possession. It also explains the right to trespass and the rights of trespassers.

Chapter

This chapter explains the moral rights of the author in a copyright context. Moral rights emphasize the strong link between the work and its author. That link prevails regardless of the how the commercial exploitation of the work takes place. There are two core moral rights. First, there is the right to be identified, or the paternity right. This applies traditionally to literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works, but it has been expanded to include films and performances. Second, there is the right of integrity, or the right to object to derogatory treatment of the work. This protects the reputation of the author, which again also has its value for users of the work. The discussion also includes the right against false attribution of the work; the right to privacy in relation to commissioned photographs; and consent and waiver.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the duties of care that arise where the claimant has suffered some kind of personal injury—principally cases of bodily injury and psychiatric illness. The law imposes a wide duty with respect to persons who are physically proximate and vulnerable to injury. The law also imposes a wide duty of care upon persons who imperil others’ physical safety and cause them, as persons in the ‘zone of danger’, to suffer psychiatric illness. By contrast, the law has imposed certain ‘control mechanisms’ on the duty of care as it applies to secondary victims (who were outside the zone of danger but have suffered psychiatric injury). These mechanisms involve stringent types of proximity (as to relationships, presence, and sensory experience).

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on moral rights conferred by the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 on the authors of certain works to protect their non-pecuniary or non-economic interests. It begins by looking at a number of criticisms made about moral rights, followed by a discussion on examples of moral rights, namely: right of attribution or right of paternity, right to object to false attribution, and right of integrity. The issue of copyright infringement in relation to these rights is also considered.

Chapter

There are two different types of rights labelled as ‘moral rights’ in the CDPA: rights for authors referred to as the rights of paternity and integrity; and other rights of all individuals: the right not to be falsely attributed as author of a work; and a right of privacy in privately commissioned photographs and films. These protect non-commercial aspects of the relationship between authors and their works. Thus, they cannot be assigned, and may be enforced even after the author has assigned or licensed their economic rights, and even against the owner or licensee. The rights last as long as copyright does and pass to the author’s beneficiaries on death. Different countries have implemented the Berne rights in different ways. Authors’ moral rights were introduced in 1988 to implement the Berne Convention; the UK does not protect them as fully as other countries, particularly civil law countries.