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The successful law student needs to be able to place the law in context, analyse its effects on different parts of society, apply these rules to different problems, and reflect upon the suitability of both individual laws and the law as an institution. This ability to think critically and undertake broad and deep legal analysis is important to becoming a lawyer, but is also valuable for any other career. This chapter explores the importance of critical thinking to the law degree and beyond, and looks at how the student can bring analysis and criticism into their work. It considers techniques for problem solving and essay writing, and the importance of constructing arguments balancing ‘content’ and ‘thought’.

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This chapter begins with a sketch of the contemporary mental health system, and then discusses the rise and fall of asylum-based provision, the development of community care, and life inside a psychiatric facility. It argues that the mental health system will continue, as it always has done, to be framed in terms of the negotiation of a balance or compromise between our bi-focal response to mental disorder, prompted both by concern about the plight of fellow human beings and by a desire to control behaviour judged to be dangerous or antisocial.

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Since 1973, the English legal system has been radically affected by what is now called ‘EU law’. EU law takes precedence over all national laws, including legislation. This chapter explains the basic structure and relevance of EU institutions, legislation, and case law, and how these affect the methods of legal analysis we employ. The discussions cover the sources of EU law; the institutions of the EU and their increasingly important role in our law-making; the main analytical techniques employed by European lawyers; and the legal method employed in the Court of Justice of the European Union and the effect of EU law on the drafting and interpretation of UK Legislation.

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The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about the origins, institutions, and development of the European Union and its legislative processes. Key debates noted are the questions raised by the changes brought about by the Lisbon Treaty, and concerns raised by Member States about the EU assuming too many competences. Sample exam questions cover topics such as the concept of European integration and the motivations behind it, reform of the EU, the powers of the Court of Justice of the European Union and its impact, and analysis of the 2007 Lisbon Treaty and the abandoned Constitutional Treaty which it effectively replaced.

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Andrew Byrnes and Catherine Renshaw

This chapter examines the state’s role in promoting and protecting human rights, and is organized as follows. Section 2 deals with substantive protections: the nature, status, and scope of human rights protections under national law. These include the incorporation or other use of international human rights norms in domestic law, constitutional guarantees of rights, human rights legislation, protection under the general law, including the concept of the rule of law, and the common law. Section 3 considers institutional protections of human rights. It briefly outlines the types of institutions that commonly play a role in the implementation, monitoring, and protection of human rights, including the courts, the executive, and the legislature, as well as mechanisms such as ombudsmen and national human rights institutions.

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Andrew Byrnes and Catherine Renshaw

This chapter examines the state’s role in promoting and protecting human rights. The chapter deals with substantive protections: the nature, status, and scope of human rights protections under national law. These include the incorporation or other use of international human rights norms in domestic law, constitutional guarantees of rights, human rights legislation, protection under the general law, including the concept of the rule of law, and the common law. The chapter next considers institutional protections of human rights and briefly outlines the types of institutions that commonly play a role in the implementation, monitoring, and protection of human rights, including the courts, the executive, and the legislature, as well as mechanisms such as ombudsmen and national human rights institutions.

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This chapter begins by defining international economic law. It then discusses the main international economic institutions: the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. It goes on to elaborate on the key principles of international trade law: tariffication, binding tariffs, most favoured nation treatment and the national treatment obligation and discusses exceptions to these principles, anti-dumping and subsidies, regional trade arrangements, and developing States and dispute settlement within the WTO. The chapter also discusses the key principles of international investment law (including foreign direct investment, protection standards, expropriation and dispute settlement); the international financial architecture; and international economic law and State sovereignty.

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This chapter draws a distinction between public, institutional enforcement of competition law, which may raise issues of public international law, and private actions before national courts. The coexistence of competition law regimes around the world means that companies that trade internationally may find themselves subject to the law of a ‘foreign’ state. While in the US the effects doctrine is relied on to assert jurisdiction, in the EU there has been no explicit adoption of the effects doctrine. Instead, the EU relies upon an ‘implementation’ doctrine. Under principles of comity a state may recognize the interests of another state when applying its competition law. Multilateral initiatives have been taken to try to resolve difficulties, but there is at present no single global agreement on competition law.

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This chapter traces the development of human rights protection in the Americas. It discusses the declarations, conventions, and the institutional framework of the Organization of American States tasked with ensuring the compliance of States with the provisions of the American Convention.

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Stuart Bell, Donald McGillivray, Ole W. Pedersen, Emma Lees, and Elen Stokes

This chapter focuses on national law, while also introducing international and European sources. Environmental law emerges at international, European, and national levels partly because the complex, interconnected nature of environmental problems requires a range of solutions at all of these levels. Some of the key characteristics of environmental laws that help to explain both the form and function of UK environmental law are examined here. The chapter also considers the institutions that are involved in the administration of environmental law and policy. The administration of environmental law and policy is carried out by a diversity of bodies, including government departments, regulatory agencies such as the Environment Agency, and a range of quasi-governmental bodies. The focus here is almost exclusively on UK structures and institutions. An underlying theme of the chapter is the way in which administrative structures are used to encourage the integration of environmental law and policy both internally—for example, through the creation of the Environment Agency as a unified regulatory agency—and externally; for example, through various methods of scrutinizing environmental policy across government departments.

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This chapter sets out the basic aims, themes, and structure of this book. The book provides an introductory account of the English legal system, how it has developed in recent years, and how it may develop in future. Part II raises fundamental issues about the social functions of law and the legitimacy of law; and considers the institutional framework within which law is made. Part III looks at the different context in which law is developed and practised. Part IV looks at the delivery and funding of legal services. Part V returns to the theme of transformation and the challenges to be faced.

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This chapter examines the institutions of global governance responsible for formulating and implementing international environmental policy and law. It starts by defining global governance as a continuing process via which conflicting or diverse interests may be accommodated. This provides the environment where cooperative action may be taken. Global governance includes formal institutions and regimes empowered to enforce compliance, as well as informal arrangements. In this situation, there is no single model or form of global governance, nor is there a single structure or set of structures. Global governance, therefor, is a broad, dynamic, complex, process of interactive decision-making. The chapter also looks at the differences in international environmental policy and law today compared to when this book first published twenty-five years previously.

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Since 1973, the English legal system has been radically affected by what is now called ‘EU law’. Following the Brexit referendum the UK has now left the EU but there remains a legacy of nearly fifty years of EU-related legislation and case law to contend with. The solution has been to keep a large amount of that EU-derived law, termed ‘Retained Law’, as if it had been created by our Parliament and courts in the first place. The mechanism for dealing with how that has been achieved, and the implication for the future, is discussed here.

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This chapter assesses four different types of awards and orders that are available to arbitrators. Procedural orders provide procedural directions and measures designed to preserve evidence or the subject-matter of the dispute (conservatory measures) while an arbitration is proceeding. Meanwhile, interim awards and awards on different issues dispose of one or more of the substantive issues in the arbitration, leaving the other issues to be decided later. Final awards dispose of the arbitration, while costs awards provide for the payment of the costs incurred in the arbitration between the parties. Usually, once an order or award is made, it is binding on the parties. Most sets of institutional arbitral rules include provision for parties making suggestions for the correction of clerical mistakes in orders and awards. Lawyers also need to advise their clients on the meaning and effect of the tribunal's decision, and where there is further work to be done, to take the client's instructions on the next steps.

Chapter

Lesley McAra

This chapter explores the founding principles, operational functioning and impact of the institutions which have evolved across the four nations in the United Kingdom to deal with children and young people who come into conflict with the law. It takes as its principal empirical focus the shifting patterns of control that have emerged over the past twenty years—a period characterized by a persistent disjuncture between normative claims about youth justice, evolving policy discourse, and the impact of youth justice practices on the lives of young people. The chapter concludes by arguing that, unless there is better alignment between these dimensions, justice for children and young people cannot and will never be delivered.

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This chapter examines the various political or diplomatic methods available for international dispute settlement. These methods include negotiation, mediation or ‘good offices’, inquiry, and conciliation. The array of diplomatic techniques available to parties to resolve a dispute is complemented by various means of settling disputes through the application of binding solutions based on the law. Two in particular, arbitration and adjudication, principally developed from earlier forms of non-binding settlement. Though these are different, they are linked by two principal characteristics. Foremost, they allow for a third party to issue a decision that is binding on the parties. Second, resorting to these methods requires the prior consent of the parties. The chapter then considers the International Court of Justice, the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations. The ICJ’s structure was frequently utilized as a model for later judicial institutions, making an enormous contribution to the development of international law.

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Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the UK corporate governance system and some of the key corporate governance topics. It begins by looking at what corporate governance is and how the UK’s corporate governance system has evolved. The chapter then discusses the effectiveness of the ‘comply or explain’ approach. It also discusses a number of key corporate governance mechanisms, namely institutional investors, non-executive directors, and directors’ remuneration.

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The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter explores important issues in company management and corporate governance, starting by examining the role of directors and shareholders (and the relationship between them) and the separation of ‘ownership and control’. Since the early 1990s, the governance of listed companies has been dominated by self-regulatory codes (currently the UK Corporate Governance Code). This chapter examines how these codes operate and considers key themes in corporate governance, including the role of non-executive directors and auditors; the position of institutional investors; and executive remuneration.

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Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. This chapter addresses funding access to the English legal system. Funding legal services may be provided publicly or privately. Public funding relates to funding available from the state, whereas private funding specifically refers to the assets and monetary resources available to that specific individual. Only certain individuals are entitled to benefit from public funding, whilst all persons can, in theory, privately fund legal services. Moreover, legal aid—meaning state-funded assistance in legal matters—is available in both criminal and civil cases but is restricted to narrow circumstances and types of cases. The availability of legal aid depends on several tests set by the government. Where legal aid is not available and the individual cannot privately fund their case, pro bono institutions may be available to provide advice.

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This chapter focuses on direct actions before the Court of Justice. It is divided into two sections. Section I deals with direct actions relating to public enforcement of EU law between the Commission and Member States (Article 258 TFEU) and between Member States (Article 259 TFEU). The financial consequences of failure to remedy infringements are also covered (Article 260 TFEU). Section II deals with actions challenging the legality of binding institutional acts (action for annulment, Article 263 TFEU); action for failure to act (Article 265 TFEU); and the plea of illegality (Article 277 TFEU). It briefly examines the action for damages against EU institutions (Articles 268 and 340(2) TFEU), a Treaty-based action from which parallels can be drawn to the evolution of state liability, through the Court’s case law.