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Chapter

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

28. Insolvency  

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter deals with insolvency and the principles of insolvency law. It begins with a brief historical background. It then considers the basic objectives of insolvency law as it relates to the bankruptcy of individuals and to corporate insolvency. In particular, it highlights the importance of the pari passu principle to ensure that all creditors participate on an equal footing in the estate in question. The chapter goes on to discuss the various definitions of insolvency before concluding with an overview of insolvency procedures for both individual insolvency and corporate insolvency.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

17. Insolvency and Dissolution  

This chapter explains how insolvency law applies to an LLP. It considers the various insolvency processes under the Insolvency Act 1986 that can arise, and the position of members in a winding up, both as potential contributories and also as potential creditors. It addresses investigations into LLPs under the Companies Act 1985, and finally explains how an LLP can be struck from the register and how it can be restored.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

9. Corporate rescue and liquidation  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the various procedures available to companies experiencing financial difficulties that are so severe that the company’s survival is in jeopardy. It focuses on procedures that aim to help struggling companies (such as administration); help creditors recover monies owed (such as receivership); and commence the process of ending the company’s existence and provide for the distribution of its remaining assets (namely winding up).

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd [1970] AC 567, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd [1970] AC 567, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Sealy & Worthington's Text, Cases, and Materials in Company Law

1. The Company and its Incorporation  

This chapter discusses rescue and insolvency procedures. Companies experiencing financial difficulty have various options to effect either the timely rescue of viable commercial enterprises or the orderly and competent management of affairs before ceasing operations. This chapter considers: the Insolvency Act 1986 Pt 1A moratorium; company voluntary arrangements; administration; receivership and administrative receivership; distribution of assets subject to the receivership; liquidation or winding up; investigating and reporting the affairs of the company; dissolution of the company; and restoration to the register.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd [1970] AC 567, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Barclays Bank Ltd v Quistclose Investments Ltd [1970] AC 567, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Partnership and LLP Law

8. Partnerships and Insolvency  

This chapter sets out in outline the impact of insolvency on partnerships, the insolvency being that of the firm, one or more of the partners or any combination of those possibilities. It deals in order with the winding up of an insolvent partnership only, the winding up of the insolvent firm with the concurrent bankruptcies of the partners, joint bankruptcy petitions against the partners and separate bankruptcy petitions against the partners. It distinguishes between the rights of partnership and individual creditors and deals with the disqualification of an insolvent partner from the management of a company. The chapter then details the application of the corporate insolvency procedures of voluntary arrangements and administration orders to partnerships.

Book

Cover Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law
Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law looks at all aspects of current UK company law. The 37th edition continues the tradition of providing accurate technical detail, examination of theory, and quotations from key cases. The volume starts with an overview of the topic. Next it looks at the establishment of companies. It moves on to consider finance which includes an examination of shares, accounts, loans, market abuse, capital and borrowing. The next part of the text considers governance. It looks at shareholders, directors, duties of directors, company secretaries and auditors, remedies and acting for a company. The last part of the text examines insolvency and liquidation.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law

20. Company insolvency and liquidation  

This chapter deals with procedures and legislation governing the insolvency and liquidation of a company and who are qualified as insolvency practitioners. It discusses insolvency procedures such as administration, voluntary arrangement, creditors’ voluntary winding up, winding up by the court and the appointment of a provisional liquidator. It considers the effect of insolvency and liquidation procedures on floating charges, court control of insolvency and liquidation procedures, and liability for fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. The legal principles underlying disqualification orders against a company’s directors, the use of an insolvent company’s name, the order of the application of assets in liquidation and the dissolution of a company are also examined.

Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

17. Personal Claims and Remedies  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter considers the personal liability of trustees for breach of trust and studies proprietary remedies, which involve the claimant’s recovering particular property from the defendant, or obtaining a security interest in the defendant’s property. Proprietary remedies provide the crucial advantage of providing the claimant with priority over other creditors in the event of the defendant’s insolvency. Personal claims, by contrast, do not enjoy such priority over the claims of others. However, where the defendant is solvent and the property in question has fallen in value, a personal remedy for the value of the claimant’s loss or defendant’s gain may be preferable to a proprietary remedy. Personal remedies are also to be preferred when the property in which the claimant had a proprietary interest has been dissipated, because in such circumstances no proprietary remedy will be possible.

Chapter

Cover Legal Systems & Skills

20. Essential economics and finance  

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter focuses on the economic and financial environment, introducing the fundamentals of economics including an introduction to micro- and macro-economics, supply and demand, economic resources and fiscal and monetary policies, topical economic issues and the relationship between GDP, inflation and unemployment. It then looks at financial markets, with an introduction to stock markets, shares and bonds, and the major players within those markets, particularly the banks. It examines the fundamentals of money and finance: what money is, how to organise and account for it, and what happens when things go wrong. This includes an introduction to business accounts and an examination of corporate and personal insolvency.

Book

Cover Company Law

Lee Roach

Company Law guides the reader through the intricacies of the subject with expert analysis of the application of principles to real-life cases. The chapters provide comprehensive coverage of all core aspects of company law. The relationship between company law and corporate governance is explored, ensuring that readers have a full picture of how and why companies are create d and regulated. Topics include: the formation and nature of the company; the board of directors; membership of the company; and corporate rescue, restructuring, and insolvency; and new subjects such as the effects of the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union and the impact upon company law of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

21. Corporate reconstructions and takeovers  

This chapter looks at the legal framework that regulated takeovers, as well as discussing corporate reconstruction via a scheme of reconstruction, a scheme of arrangement, and the restructuring plan. A reconstruction under s 110 of the Insolvency Act 1986 involves all or part of a company’s business or property being transferred or sold to one or more new companies, and the original company is then voluntarily wound up. A s 110 reconstruction binds all members and creditors who are affected by it, even those who did not vote for it. Meanwhile, a scheme of arrangement or a restructuring plan, under Pts 26 and 26A of the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) respectively, is a compromise or arrangement between a company and its creditors, or any class of them; or its members, or any class of them. Takeovers are regulated by the Panel on Takeovers and Mergers, which is responsible for drafting and updating the City Code on Takeovers and Mergers.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

22. Corporate rescue  

This chapter examines the rationale behind the rescue culture and the three principal rescue mechanisms: administration, the company voluntary arrangement, and the moratorium. The UK has sought to adopt a rescue culture, under which the law offers struggling companies access to several rescue mechanisms. The principal rescue mechanism is administration, under which an administrator is appointed to try and fulfil the purpose of administration. An administrator can be appointed by the court, the holder of a qualifying floating charge, or the company or its directors. A moratorium is imposed once a company enters administration, which prevents certain actions from proceeding. Meanwhile, a company voluntary arrangement is a rescue procedure that allows a company to enter into a binding agreement with its creditors. A company voluntary arrangement begins with a proposal being made, and that proposal must then be approved by the company and creditors. A new, free-standing moratorium was introduced in 2020.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

23. Liquidation, dissolution, and restoration  

This concluding chapter explores the different types of liquidation, the powers of a liquidator, and the ways in which a company can be dissolved and restored. The Insolvency Act 1986 (IA 1986) provides for two types of liquidation: voluntary winding up and winding up by the court. A voluntary winding up occurs where the members voluntarily wind up the company by passing a special resolution. Meanwhile, compulsory winding up occurs where a person petitions the court for an order of winding up the company, and the court grants such an order. The liquidator’s role is to gather, realize, and distribute the assets of the company to its creditors and, if there is a surplus, to persons so entitled. Ultimately, the process by which a company’s existence is ended is known as ‘dissolution’. A dissolved company can be restored in certain circumstances.

Book

Cover Mayson, French, and Ryan on Company Law
Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law looks at all aspects of current UK company law. The 38th edition continues the tradition of providing accurate technical detail, examination of theory, and quotations from key cases. The volume starts with an overview of the topic. Next it looks at the establishment of companies. It moves on to consider finance which includes an examination of shares, accounts, loans, market abuse, capital and borrowing. The next part of the text considers governance. It looks at shareholders, directors, duties of directors, company secretaries and auditors, remedies and acting for a company. The last part of the text examines insolvency and liquidation.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French, and Ryan on Company Law

20. Company insolvency and liquidation  

This chapter deals with procedures and legislation governing the insolvency and liquidation of a company and who are qualified as insolvency practitioners. It discusses insolvency procedures such as administration, voluntary arrangement, creditors’ voluntary winding up, winding up by the court and the appointment of a provisional liquidator. It considers the effect of insolvency and liquidation procedures on floating charges, court control of insolvency and liquidation procedures, and liability for fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. The legal principles underlying disqualification orders against a company’s directors, the use of an insolvent company’s name, the order of the application of assets in liquidation and the dissolution of a company are also examined.

Chapter

Cover Company Law Concentrate

9. Corporate rescue and liquidation  

This chapter discusses the various procedures available to companies experiencing financial difficulties that are so severe that the company’s survival is in jeopardy. It focuses on the principal statutory procedures that aim to help struggling companies, namely administration, the company voluntary arrangement, the restructuring plan, and the moratorium. It then moves on to discuss liquidation and the distribution of assets to creditors.

Book

Cover Sealy and Hooley's Commercial Law

David Fox, Roderick Munday, Baris Soyer, Andrew Tettenborn, and Peter Turner

All books in this flagship series extract key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with an invaluable resource. This new edition includes discussion of new legislation, including the new Insolvency Act 1986, ss 263H–263O; the Payment Services Regulations 2017; the Electronic Presentment of Instruments (Evidence of Payment and Compensation for Loss) Regulations 2018; and the Business Terms (Assignment of Receivables) Regulations 2018. In addition it discusses new case law such as Glencore International AG v MSC (on personal property law and shipping documents); Volcafe Ltd v Cia Sud Americana de Vapores (on bailment); Kaefer Aislamientos v AMS Drilling Mexico, Bailey v Angove’s Pty, and Banca Nazionale del Lavoro v Playboy Club (on agency); PST Energy 7 Shipping v OW Bunker Malta, Bajaj Healthcare v Fine Organics, Gunvor v Sky Oil & Gas, and Euro-Asian Oil SA v Crédit Suisse AG (on sale of goods); The Erin Schulte and Taurus Petroleum v State Oil Company (on trade finance); BP Oil International v First Abu Dhabi Bank (on assignment); Haywood v Zurich Insurance, The DC Merwestone, and Axa Insurance UK v Financial Claims Solutions (on insurance); and Jetivia SA v Bilta (UK) Ltd and JSC BTA Bank v Ablyazov (on insolvency). Other developments are also covered, such as the proposed reform of bills of sale recommended in the 2017 Law Commission report on Bills of Sale. The book contains a new introductory section on the likely detailed impact of Brexit on English commercial law.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v Tan [1995] 2 AC 378, Privy Council  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v Tan [1995] 2 AC 378, Privy Council. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.