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Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

18. Infringement of patents  

This chapter explores the infringement of patents. In the United Kingdom, s. 60 of the Patents Act is the key provision on direct patent infringement. The patentee will have to show two things: first, that one or more infringing acts have been committed within the United Kingdom, and second, that the defendant's conduct falls within the scope of protection afforded to the patent, i.e. within the literal or purposive meaning of the claims. By way of response, the defendant to a patent infringement action can raise a number of different arguments. It can deny that the claimant has established the elements of the infringement action by showing that no infringing conduct has been committed, or even if it has, that the defendant's product or process is not within the meaning of the claims. The Patents Act defines infringing conduct in s. 60. One critical aspect is that it must involve some sort of commercial activity.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

4. Infringement of copyright  

This chapter focuses on the two types of copyright infringement within the CDPA 1988: primary infringement and secondary infringement. In primary infringement, the defendants are directly involved in copying, performing, and issuing to the public the copyright work, whereas secondary infringement involves people who deal with infringing copies, or facilitate such copying or other activities that are restricted by copyright. Besides this difference that has to do with the scope of rights, there is also difference on the mental element. Unlike primary infringement that does not require knowledge or intention to infringe on the part of the alleged infringer and is hence subject to strict liability, secondary infringement occurs where the defendant knew or had reason to believe that activities in question are wrongful. This is assessed on the basis of an objective test, namely what matters is what a reasonable person would have thought in the relevant circumstances.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

22. Infringement  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter deals with patent infringement and the scope of protection that the law provides to patent owners. It discusses three criteria that are used to determine whether a patent has been infringed: the types of activity that constitute an infringement; whether the activity in question falls within the scope of the patent monopoly; and whether the defendant is able to invoke any of the defences that are available to them. The chapter discusses in detail the right to make a product (and the relationship with repair), the concept of a ‘direct’ product from a patented process, and infringement of new medical use patents, as well as ‘indirect’ infringement by supplying means to put an invention into effect. It then considers the scope of protection, closely examining the evolution in the United Kingdom of the interpretation of claims and the recognition of a doctrine of equivalents extending the scope of protection beyond the terms of the claims. The chapter also examines the defences of private and non-commercial use, experimental use, and ‘farmers’ privileges’.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

8. Infringement  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter considers the question of what amounts to copyright infringement, first by differentiating between ‘primary’ infringement and ‘secondary’ infringement. It then explains the three criteria used to determine whether copyright in a work has been infringed: whether the defendant carried out one of the activities that falls within the copyright owner’s rights; whether there is a causal link between the work used (that is, reproduced, issued, rented, performed, communicated, or adapted) by the defendant and the copyright work; and whether the restricted act has been committed in relation to the work or a substantial part thereof. It also looks at the European approach to finding infringement (following the Infopaq decision) and compares it with the British approach before concluding with a description of non-literal copying of such works.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Commission v Greece (‘Crete case II’) (Case C-387/97), EU:C:2000:356, [2000] ECR I-5092, 4 July 2000  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Commission v Greece (‘Crete case II’) (Case C-387/97), EU:C:2000:356, [2000] ECR I-5092, 4 July 2000. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Commission v Greece (‘Crete case II’) (Case C-387/97), EU:C:2000:356, [2000] ECR I-5092, 4 July 2000  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Commission v Greece (‘Crete case II’) (Case C-387/97), EU:C:2000:356, [2000] ECR I-5092, 4 July 2000. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

15. Copyright infringement  

This chapter discusses the various acts that can infringe copyright. A distinction is made between primary infringement and secondary infringement. All forms of primary infringement involve copying, whether through reproduction or through performance of the work. Under s. 16(1) of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, the rights of the copyright owner are infringed if: the work is copied; copies of the work are issued to the public; the work is lent or rented to the public; the work is performed, shown, or played in public; the work is communicated to the public; or an adaptation is made of the work or any of the above is done in relation to an adaptation. Secondary infringement involves the commercial exploitation of works that attract copyright.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

17. Rights in performances  

This chapter focuses on rights in performances, which covers all aspects of the making of a recording of a performance and its subsequent exploitation. The discussion includes subsistence of rights; term of protection; the qualification requirement; content and infringement; the nature of the performer’s rights and their transfer; and moral rights.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

26. Trade marks—infringement and revocation  

This chapter discusses the law on trade mark infringement and revocation. Section 10 of the Trade Marks Act 1994 establishes the basic criteria for an infringement action. If a mark is already on the Trade Marks Register, it is an infringement to use the same mark for the same goods or services. The grant of a trade mark lasts initially for 10 years from the date of its registration, and this may be renewed for a seemingly indefinite number of further periods of 10 years thereafter on payment of the appropriate fee. There are four grounds listed in s. 46(1) of the 1994 Act for revocation: (i) five years’ lack of genuine use of the mark in the UK without cause; (ii) a suspension for the same period (after initial use); (iii) the mark has become the common name for the product in question in the trade; and (iv) if the mark has been used in a misleading manner, especially as to the nature, quality, or origin of the goods or services in question.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

6. Infringement and revocation  

This chapter discusses the law on patent infringement and revocation. The grounds on which a patent may be revoked are established by s. 72 of the UK Patents Act 1977. On the issue of infringement, s. 60 of the 1977 Act is the key provision and unusually makes separate, although not dissimilar, provisions for patents that are for products and those that are for processes. Interpretation of claims is a key aspect of any infringement case.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

28. Ownership, Exploitation, and Infringement: Registered Designs and Supplementary Unregistered Designs  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on who is entitled to apply for a design registration as well as the rules relating to ownership and exploitation with respect to registered designs in the UK and unregistered Community designs. It also discusses infringement and exceptions in the three harmonized systems. It begins by considering the question of who is initially entitled to a design, citing entitlement under the UK Registered Designs Act 1949. It then turns to assignment and licensing, the optimal period of protection for a design, and the British approach to infringement. Finally, the chapter examines exceptions and defences that are available when dealing with design protection.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

30. Design Right  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter focuses on the unregistered Design Right as a means of protecting designs in the United Kingdom under Part III of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. It begins by considering the subsistence of the Design Right, with emphasis on the requirement that there be a ‘design’ and exclusions to design protection by the unregistered design right. The chapter then discusses issues of ownership, duration, and infringement as well as the defences that are available in cases of infringement of unregistered designs.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Commission v Poland (Case C-619/18), EU:C:2019:531, [2008] ECR I-6351, 24 June 2019  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Commission v Poland (Case C-619/18), EU:C:2019:531, [2008] ECR I-6351, 24 June 2019. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Commission v Poland (Case C-619/18), EU:C:2019:531, [2008] ECR I-6351, 24 June 2019  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Commission v Poland (Case C-619/18), EU:C:2019:531, [2008] ECR I-6351, 24 June 2019. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

7. Procedure: complaints and third-party rights  

This chapter focuses on the rights of those wishing to take action against an infringement of competition law, potentially with a view to being compensated for the harm they may have suffered. One option is going to the relevant competition authority and filing a complaint to trigger the public enforcement route, saving the cost of litigation. The other option is to seek competition law enforcement in private claims before the courts. Claimants may seek damages or other remedies, including injunctions. In the UK, damages may be sought before the Competition Appeals Tribunal (CAT) and before the national courts. Collective claims can only be brought before the CAT. The number of private actions is increasing, and efforts have been made both by the EU and UK legislators to encourage more private litigation.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

13. Infringement and loss of registration of trade marks  

This chapter focuses on trade mark infringement, setting out the rights of a trade mark owner to prevent others from making use of any sign which is the same as or similar to the registered mark in the course of trade. A claimant who brings a trade mark infringement action will have to show two things: that an act of infringement has been committed, and that such conduct falls within the scope of protection afforded to the registered mark. Once these two points have been established, the court will normally find in favour of the claimant unless one or more of the counter-arguments raised by the defendant succeeds. A defendant who is sued for trade mark infringement, besides denying that infringement has been made out or raising one of the statutory defences, will usually try to counterclaim that the mark should be revoked or declared invalid.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

14. Defences to trade mark infringement  

This chapter looks at the various defences against trade mark infringement and the way in which the courts have interpreted them. A defendant's principal argument will be to deny that there has been any infringing conduct, and/or that what has been done is not within the scope of protection given to the registered mark. There are, however, a number of statutory defences. These defences span from the use of one's own name to a framework outlining the conditions of comparative advertisement and the role of exhaustion of rights as a defence to an action for trade mark infringement, including the ways in which the intellectual property owner can object to the parallel importation of non-European Economic Area (EEA) goods.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

8. Africa  

This chapter examines the role of the African Union, formerly the Organization of African Unity (OAU), in the development of African jurisprudence on human rights. It provides a brief historical background on the African Union and the Charter provisions. The chapter traces the development of human rights protection in Africa; describes the monitoring and enforcement of human rights law; highlights the impact of the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights on human rights in Africa; and explains how States may be held accountable for infringements of rights and freedoms.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

13. Enforcement Actions Against Member States  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. A crucial component of the Commission’s task is to monitor Member State compliance and to respond to non-compliance. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) provides for various enforcement mechanisms involving judicial proceedings against the Member States, which are brought either by the Commission or - much less frequently - by a Member State. Article 258 TFEU establishes the general enforcement procedure, giving the Commission broad power to bring enforcement proceedings against Member States that it considers to be in breach of their obligations under EU law. This chapter discusses the function and operation of the infringement procedure; the relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’ enforcement mechanisms; the Commission’s discretion; types of breach by Member States of EU law; state defences in enforcement proceedings; and the consequences of an Article 258 ruling. The UK version contains a further section analysing the extent to which Article 258 is relevant to the UK post-Brexit.