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Cover Pearce & Stevens' Trusts and Equitable Obligations

30. Management and delegation  

This chapter explores trustees’ management powers. The management powers of trustees are concerned with looking after property or funds. They do not allow the trustees to choose who benefits. In addition, the powers of management conferred upon a trustee are not the same in every case. Quite obviously, the powers of express trustees are likely to differ significantly from those of constructive trustees upon whom a trust has been imposed because of their improper conduct. In the latter case, the question of the trustees’ powers rarely arises. They are wrongdoers, who are, by definition, acting in breach of duty. How far they are authorized to act is, therefore, unlikely to be an issue.


Cover Anson's Law of Contract

10. Duress, Undue Influence, and Unconscionable Bargains  

Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrows, and John Cartwright

This chapter discusses the nature and operation of duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains. Duress and undue influence occur where one party to a contract has coerced the other or exercised such domination that the other’s independence of decision was substantially undermined. In the limited category of cases in which the doctrine of unconscionable bargains operates, it is necessary to show not only that the process by which the contract was made was unfair but that there is contractual imbalance, i.e., the doctrine extends to the actual substance of the contract and the fairness of its terms. Conduct which constitutes duress or undue influence by a trader against a consumer may also constitute a ‘prohibited practice’ under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008, which will give the consumer ‘rights to redress’ under the Regulations.