1-12 of 12 Results

  • Keyword: illegality defence x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

10. Defences to negligence  

This chapter discusses three key defences in the tort of negligence: voluntary assumption of risk (consent or volenti non fit injuria), contributory negligence and illegality. The defence of voluntary assumption of risk is based on the common-sense notion that ‘one who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers it, complain of it as a wrong’. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants injured while committing unlawful activities. Contributory negligence is a defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

10. Defences to negligence  

This chapter discusses three key defences in the tort of negligence: voluntary assumption of risk (consent or volenti non fit injuria), contributory negligence and illegality. The defence of voluntary assumption of risk is based on the common-sense notion that ‘one who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers it, complain of it as a wrong’. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants injured while committing unlawful activities. Contributory negligence is a defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

23. Defences  

This chapter begins with a brief discussion of the role of defences in the law of torts. It then considers their application to torts which require proof of damage in order to be actionable, and in particular with the tort of negligence. The discussions cover contributory negligence; consent; exclusion and limitation of liability; illegality; necessity; inevitable accident; authorisation; and limitation of action. The chapter takes into account recent statutory developments including the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015 on the law governing exclusion and limitation of liability. It also examines the extensive Supreme Court case law reexamining the defence of illegality.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Tort Law

11. General Defences  

Dr Karen Dyer and Dr Anil Balan

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses general defences, covering key debates, sample questions, diagram answer plan, tips for getting extra marks, and online resources. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the concept of negligence; the Occupier’s Liability Acts; the defence of volenti non fit injuria; the defence of contributory negligence and the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945; and the defence of illegality—ex turpi causa non oritur action.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

7. Defences to Negligence  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter explores three defences to negligence which are also defences to other torts: volenti non fit injuria or willing assumption of risk, the illegality defence (also known as ex turpi causa), and contributory negligence. In relation to contributory negligence, the chapter considers responsibility, which involves questions both of causal influence and of fault, before turning to a discussion of apportionment of responsibility between the parties, and proportionality. In relation to illegality, recent decisions of the Supreme Court are examined. Relevant provisions of the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945 are extracted, together with further extracts from significant cases.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

8. Defences to negligence  

This chapter examines several defences in negligence cases, including contributory negligence (failing to take care of your own interests), voluntary assumption of risk, express exclusion or limitation of liability, and illegality (a plea by the defendant that the claimant should not be able to make a claim because the claim requires reference to the claimant’s own illegal acts). It explains that the plea of voluntary assumption of risk and the defences of express exclusion of liability and illegality can help the defendant reduce liability or avoid liability altogether. The chapter notes that contributory negligence is by far the most important of these defences in practical terms.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Henderson v Dorset Healthcare University NHS Foundation [2020] UKSC 43  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Henderson v Dorset Healthcare University NHS Foundation Trust [2020] UKSC 43. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Lunney & Oliphant's Tort Law

6. Defences to Negligence  

Donal Nolan and Ken Oliphant

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

6. Defences to Negligence  

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant's claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Henderson v Dorset Healthcare University NHS Foundation [2020] UKSC 43  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Henderson v Dorset Healthcare University NHS Foundation Trust [2020] UKSC 43. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law Concentrate

16. Defences and limitation  

This chapter first discusses the defence of contributory negligence, voluntary assumption of risk, and illegality. Contributory negligence occurs when the claimant has contributed to his own damage, and permits damages to be apportioned according to what is just and equitable. Voluntary assumption of risk is a complete defence, on the basis that the claimant freely agreed to run the risk of damage. Illegality is a complete defence, on the grounds that the law will not reward or appear to condone an illegal act. The chapter then turns to limitation periods, which restrict the amount of time within which legal actions must be commenced. The main statute is the Limitation Act 1980.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

15. Illegality  

This chapter explores the illegality of contracts. Contracts which may fall within the scope of the restraint of trade doctrine are considered, including the Court of Appeal’s approach in Proactive Sports Management Ltd v Rooney. The chapter also looks at other reasons why a contract may be declared illegal or void at common law, such as grounds of public policy. Policy factors and the illegality defence are explored in light of recent case law and the Law Commission Final Report ‘The Illegality Defence’. Useful case law illustrations demonstrate how the courts have dealt with the issues surrounding illegality in a range of contexts, such as contracts to commit an unlawful act, contracts promoting sexual immorality, contracts prejudicial to the interests of the state, contracts prejudicial to the administration of justice, and contracts promoting corruption in public life. The rules on severance in light of the Supreme Court decision in Tillman v Egon Zehnder (2019) and subsequent case law are also considered. The consequences and effects of impropriety and illegality are also looked at. The landmark case of Patel v Mirza [2016] UKSC 42, and its impact on the law, is also explored in this chapter.