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Chapter

This chapter examines the effectiveness of harmonisation in removing barriers to the four freedoms of the internal market in the European Union (EU). It explains the degree of variation amongst negative, positive, total and minimum harmonisation. It considers the relationship between mutual recognition and harmonisation and discusses concerns regarding the freedom of Member States to take individual action in harmonised fields and Member State competence. It evaluates the scope of the EU’s power to enact harmonising measures in the context of the internal market and the extent to which the Union effectively has a general power to regulate. The chapter also discusses the relevant procedures of Articles 114 and 115 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU).

Chapter

Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare

This chapter first sets out seven cases that illustrate some of the legal problems arising from international banking. Many of these cases are not new, nor are most confined to banking. The chapter outlines of how these problems have been handled followed by an examination of the broader principles underlying the resolution of the harder cases. Comity, balancing, cooperation, and harmonization are considered. Jurisdictional clashes over banking matters continue to occur. Some are resolvable in accordance with established legal doctrine, some in accordance with bilateral and multilateral agreements between states. There remains a question mark over how much is achievable in reducing the conflict by pursuing notions of jurisdiction, comity, and the balancing of interests. Rather, shared concerns on substantive issues, such as money laundering and terrorist financing, are more likely to lead to deference by, and cooperation between, jurisdictions.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The single market is central to the EU and is still its principal economic rationale. This chapter discusses the forms and techniques of economic integration, the limits of integration prior to 1986, and the subsequent steps taken to complete the single market. There is both a substantive and an institutional dimension to this story. In substantive terms, it is important to understand the economic dimension to the single market. In institutional terms, a subtle mix of legislative, administrative, and judicial initiatives has furthered evolution of the single market. The UK version contains a further section analysing the general structure of the discourse concerning future trade relations between the EU and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The single market is central to the EU and is still its principal economic rationale. This chapter discusses the forms and techniques of economic integration, the limits of integration prior to 1986, and the subsequent steps taken to complete the single market. There is both a substantive and an institutional dimension to this story. In substantive terms, it is important to understand the economic dimension to the single market. In institutional terms, a subtle mix of legislative, administrative, and judicial initiatives has furthered evolution of the single market. The UK version contains a further section analysing the general structure of the discourse concerning future trade relations between the EU and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

This chapter outlines the statutory framework of company law and the reforms put forward by the Company Law Review which were implemented by the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006). Registered companies in the UK are governed by the CA 2006 and its predecessors. The remainder of the chapter covers the European framework of company law considering the harmonisation programme, simplification measures, and the modernisation Directives. The chapter outlines the impact of EU initiatives in areas such as corporate reporting, corporate governance, restructuring, and mobility. Freedom of establishment for companies is discussed with the relevant ECJ case law. A brief discussion of the European Company is included.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the debate over new modes of decision-making and governance in the EU, and provides an account of the apparent shift towards greater use of these over time. The language of ‘new’ forms of governance in the EU refers to the move away from reliance on hierarchical modes towards more flexible modes as the preferred method of governing. A number of examples of new governance instruments and methods are provided, in particular the ‘new approach to harmonization’ and the ‘open method of coordination’. A number of other EU governance reform initiatives related to the new governance debate are also discussed, such as the subsidiarity and proportionality principles, the ‘better regulation’ initiative, and the Commission White Paper on Governance and its follow-up. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of new governance in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter introduces the debate over new modes of decision-making and governance in the EU, and provides an account of the apparent shift towards greater use of these over time. The language of ‘new’ forms of governance in the EU refers to the move away from reliance on hierarchical modes towards more flexible modes as the preferred method of governing. A number of examples of new governance instruments and methods are provided, in particular the ‘new approach to harmonization’ and the ‘open method of coordination’. A number of other EU governance reform initiatives related to the new governance debate are also discussed, such as the subsidiarity and proportionality principles, the ‘better regulation’ initiative, and the Commission White Paper on Governance and its follow-up. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues of new governance in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Book

The Substantive Law of the EU provides a critical and thorough analysis of the key principles of the substantive law of the EU, focusing on the four freedoms (goods, persons, services, and capital). An introductory chapter provides valuable context on the nature of the internal market, its evolution, and the theories behind its key principles. Each of the freedoms is then dealt with in turn. The book concludes with a discussion of harmonization, the regulation of the internal market, and its future.

Book

The Substantive Law of the EU provides a critical and thorough analysis of the key principles of the substantive law of the EU, focusing on the four freedoms (goods, persons, services, and capital). An introductory chapter provides valuable context on the nature of the internal market, its evolution, and the theories behind its key principles. Each of the freedoms is then considered in turn. The book concludes with a discussion of harmonization, the regulation of the internal market, and its future.

Chapter

This chapter studies the constitutional principles and limits governing positive integration in the context of the free movement of goods. It analyses the scope and nature of the general internal market competence(s): Articles 114 and 115 TFEU. Articles 114 and 115 TFEU provide the European Union with an—almost—unlimited competence to harmonize national laws that affect the establishment or functioning of the internal market. The chapter then looks at the relationship between Article 114 and other legislative competences within the EU legal order. It also investigates the extent to which Member States can derogate from harmonized Union standards. Finally, the chapter focuses on a specific area of Union harmonization: tax harmonization.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter examines the philosophical and justificatory context in which intellectual property rights (IPRs) have developed, and the international and regional frameworks that have emerged for their protection. It also considers some of the important contemporary debates surrounding IPRs and briefly introduces how to enforce IPRs.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the concept of authorship, as it is understood in copyright law, as well as the first ownership of copyright and the various exceptions to this rule. It begins by discussing the author of a work as defined in the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 before elaborating on the task of determining who the author of a work is. Authorship of literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works and of entrepreneurial works is then considered, along with joint authorship. The chapter also looks at exceptions to first ownership, including works created by employees, those governed by Crown copyright or made under the direction or control of Parliament, and commissioned works. Finally, it analyses the issue of harmonization with respect to authorship and the position of employed authors.

Chapter

This chapter examines the power to harmonize (that is, the power to adopt legislative acts and the possibility to supplement them by non-legislative acts), the different approaches to harmonization adopted by the Union, and the problem of the implementation and enforcement of Union standards. By setting harmonized standards, EU law enables goods, persons, services, and capital to move freely. When viewed from this perspective, harmonization is the complement of the four freedoms. However, it remains a sensitive matter both legally and politically. The chapter also examines the evolution of the digital internal market.

Chapter

This chapter examines the power to harmonize (that is, the power to adopt legislative acts and the possibility to supplement them by non-legislative acts), the different approaches to harmonization adopted by the Union, and the problem of the implementation and enforcement of Union standards. By setting harmonized standards, EU law enables goods, persons, services, and capital to move freely. When viewed from this perspective, harmonization is the complement of the four freedoms. However, it remains a sensitive matter both legally and politically. It also examines the evolution of the digital internal market.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter introduces the common law of passing off and the statutory regime that protects registered trade marks found in the Trade Marks Act 1994. It commences with a brief history of trade marks and the development of their legal protection. This is followed by a discussion of the ways in which legal protection of signs and symbols are justified. It then considers the international and regional background that informs and constrains the law on trade marks in the UK, with particular reference to registration and the harmonization of standards. The chapter concludes by looking at challenges posed to trade marks by electronic commerce and the use of trade marks as domain names, as well as recent developments in artificial intelligence which will impact this field.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the sources and purposes of company law. Legislation is the most important source of company law. There is EU as well as UK legislation, but this is subject to Brexit. Litigation concerning companies has generated a vast quantity of case law. There are other rules such as the UK Corporate Governance Code and there are practitioner texts and academic articles and books in abundance. There is a discussion of the purpose of company law which notes that its most significant purpose must be to facilitate business, but there is argument over whether mandatory rules of company law are the best way to encourage business enterprise. This leads to the discussion of whether companies should only serve the interests of their members (the shareholder-centred view of the company) or whether wider public interests must be considered.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the sources and purposes of company law. Legislation is the most important source of company law. The effect of EU legislation on UK law is explained, including retained EU Regulations which continue in force despite Brexit. Litigation concerning companies has generated a vast quantity of case law. There are other rules such as the UK Corporate Governance Code and there are practitioner texts and academic articles and books in abundance. There is a discussion of the purpose of company law which notes that its most significant purpose must be to facilitate business, but there is argument over whether mandatory rules of company law are the best way to encourage business enterprise. This leads to the discussion of whether companies should only serve the interests of their members (the shareholder-centred view of the company) or whether wider public interests must be considered.

Book

Marios Costa and Steve Peers

Now in its fourteenth edition, Steiner & Woods EU Law is regarded as a trusted EU law book. The book offers a careful blend of institutional and substantive coverage and focuses on explaining the law clearly, as well as raising areas for debate. Part I of the book charts a brief history of the development of the European Union and looks at the institutions of the Union, EU law and general principles of law. Part II provides a framework of enforcement and looks at remedies in national courts, state liability, preliminary references, direct action for annulment and union non-contractual liability. Part III considers the internal market, comprising harmonisation, customs union, free movement of goods and aspects of individuals’ free movement rights including citizenship, economic rights and social rights. It also introduces key principles relating to discrimination and competition policy. Finally, the book examines the legal issues raised by the controversial Brexit process.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter introduces the common law of passing off and the statutory regime that protects registered trade marks found in the Trade Marks Act 1994. It commences with a brief history of trade marks and the development of their legal protection. This is followed by a discussion on the ways in which legal protection of signs and symbols are justified. It then considers the international and regional background that informs and constrains the law on trade marks in the UK, with particular reference to registration and the harmonization of standards. The chapter concludes by looking at challenges posed to trade marks by electronic commerce and the use of trade marks as domain names, as well as the phenomenon of supermarket lookalikes or own brands.

Chapter

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This introduction provides an overview of topics covered in this book which relate to all areas of intellectual property law, including the justifications that have been put forward for granting intellectual property rights. It also considers the key international and regional developments that have influenced intellectual property law in the UK, such as the creation of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO), the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) negotiations, and European Union law. The chapter also discusses the ways in which the European Union is involved in intellectual property law, such as its involvement in negotiating and signing treaties. Finally, it looks at the European Economic Area and non-EU regional initiatives on intellectual property, as well as the implications of Brexit.