This chapter studies green criminology, a strand of criminology that looks at crimes against the environment, animals, and non-human nature that are largely ignored by mainstream criminology. Green criminology takes a critical approach, looking beyond narrow, human-centred definitions of crime to consider a wider conception which some see as a form of social harm. Green criminologists examine a wide range of environmental issues, from wildlife crime, wildlife trafficking, animal rights, and species justice to corporate environmental crime and illegal pollution, ecological justice and ecocide, food crime, and the links between organised crime and the waste industry. The chapter looks at how environmental issues are sometimes neglected by markets, the criminological concepts and theoretical approaches associated with green criminology, and the debate about whether we should focus on green crimes or harms. It also considers how environmental harms are regulated and the different ways of responding to and policing green crimes.
This chapter examines four main strands of critical criminology: zemiology, the study of social harm; cultural criminology, which re-focusses the critical criminological imagination on the emotional and carnivalesque aspects of crime and control; green criminology, which deals with environmental crime as a growing crime problem committed by powerful groups; and convict criminology, which is concerned with how knowledge is produced and how the marginalised voices of prisoners are silenced and muted in both criminological and policy debates. The chapter also considers some basic economic concepts and ideas and how these fit into the world of critical green criminology when studying crimes of the (economically) powerful, and how and why the features of subcultures and emotions are important to cultural criminologists. It concludes by evaluating the claim made by convict criminologists that the prisoner voice should be a central one when considering prison reform and penal change.
Steve Case, Phil Johnson, David Manlow, Roger Smith, and Kate Williams
This book is the essential companion to exploring crime and criminal justice. It provides authoritative yet accessible coverage of all key topics of criminology, with a vibrant, student-focused approach that converts curiosity into critical analysis and students into criminologists. Its full coverage of today’s most pressing criminological issues includes chapters on global criminology (exploring organised crime, drug trafficking, people smuggling, cybercrime, and terrorism), social harm, and green criminology. The book also provides practical, focused guidance on beginning criminological studies and applying criminological knowledge to research, careers, and further study. The authors’ explanations are continually brought to life by the voices and experiences of a wide variety of people connected to criminology and the criminal justice system, from students and academics to prison officers and crime victims.
This chapter introduces criminal liability for non-compliance with English environmental law. Environmental crime can be defined as behaviour that contravenes statutory provisions for the protection of the ecological and physical environment, where there is some kind of punitive sanction imposed for the contravention, with such provisions sometimes also pursuing the protection of public health. Environmental crime can also include criminal offences created through the common law, such as public nuisance. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss overarching themes, such as key elements of strict liability offences, in criminalizing behaviour that damages the environment, rather than details of specific offences spelt out in particular statutes. The argument here is that environmental crime sits uneasily within the environmental law regulatory landscape, which has been shaped in the UK in recent years by co-operative, ‘better regulation’ agendas that seek to reduce burdens on business.
Avi Brisman and Nigel South
Criminology must maintain relevance in a changing world and engage with new challenges. Perhaps pre-eminent among those facing the planet today are threats to the natural environment and, by extension, to human health and rights and to other species. A green criminology has emerged as a (now well established) criminological perspective that addresses a wide range of harms, offences, and crimes related to the environment and environmental victims. This chapter provides a review of green criminological work on climate change, consumption and waste, state-corporate and organized crimes, animal abuse, and wildlife trafficking. It also considers the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to regulation and control.