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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Digital Rights Ireland and Seitlinger and others v Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources and others (Joined cases C-293/12 and C-594/12), EU:C:2014:238, [2014] ECR I-238, 8 April 2014  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Digital Rights Ireland and Seitlinger and others v Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources and others (Joined cases C-293/12 and C-594/12), EU:C:2014:238, [2014] ECR I-238, 8 April 2014. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Digital Rights Ireland and Seitlinger and others v Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources and others (Joined cases C-293/12 and C-594/12), EU:C:2014:238, [2014] ECR I-238, 8 April 2014  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Digital Rights Ireland and Seitlinger and others v Minister for Communications, Marine and Natural Resources and others (Joined cases C-293/12 and C-594/12), EU:C:2014:238, [2014] ECR I-238, 8 April 2014. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover EU Law in the UK

9. Fundamental rights in the EU  

This chapter traces the development of EU law-based fundamental rights, from early Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) case law up to the Charter of Fundamental Rights. It considers the EU's relationship with the Council of Europe, focusing on how the CJEU and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) attempt to avoid conflicting interpretations of overlapping rights, and whether the EU can in fact sign up to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It is important to remember that the ECtHR and the ECHR are not part of EU law. The ECHR is an international human rights treaty administered by the Council of Europe. It is applied and interpreted by the ECtHR, and is transcribed into UK law in the form of the Human Rights Act 1998. The EU, meanwhile, has the Charter of Fundamental Rights as its human rights ‘treaty’. The chapter then looks at the relationship between the CJEU and the ECtHR, and examines post-Brexit fundamental rights.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

4. Fundamental Rights  

This chapter explores the sources of EU fundamental rights. Fundamental rights constitutionally limit the exercise of all European Union competences—including its legislative competences. Three sources of European fundamental rights have been developed: an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law; the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The chapter investigates these three bills of rights of the EU, beginning with the discovery of an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law. Following this, the chapter analyses the EU’s ‘written’ bill of rights in the form of its Charter of Fundamental Rights and then explores the ECHR as an external bill of rights for the EU. It finally explores the extent to which EU fundamental rights also apply to the Member States.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

9. Fundamental rights in the European Union  

Eleanor Spaventa

This chapter examines fundamental rights in the EU. It begins by analysing the historical background and the development of the case law on fundamental rights. It then examines the main Treaty provisions relating to fundamental rights protection, before turning to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. Finally, it looks at the relationship between the EU and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), including the extent to which the European Court of Human Rights agrees to scrutinize EU acts. It also considers the plan for the EU to accede to the ECHR. It also considers what happens when states do not respect the rule of law.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

9. Fundamental rights in the European Union  

Eleanor Spaventa

This chapter examines fundamental rights in the EU. It begins by analysing the historical background and the development of the case law on fundamental rights. It then examines the main Treaty provisions relating to fundamental rights protection, before turning to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. Finally, it looks at the relationship between the EU and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), including the extent to which the European Court of Human Rights agrees to scrutinize EU acts. It also considers the plan for the EU to accede to the ECHR.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

12. Human Rights in the EU  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU human rights law, and the way in which the ECJ developed fundamental rights as part of the Community legal order. The analysis includes the drafting of the EU Charter of Rights, and its application in the post-Lisbon world in which it is legally binding on the EU and on Member States when they act in the scope of EU law. The EU has gradually integrated human rights concerns into a range of its policies. The EU actively promotes its ‘human rights and democratization’ policy in many countries around the world, and uses human rights clauses in its international trade and development policies. It has imposed a human rights-based ‘political conditionality’ on candidate Member States, and claims to integrate human rights concerns throughout its common foreign and security policy. The UK version contains a further section analysing the relevance of EU conceptions of fundamental rights in relation to the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Complete EU Law

9. Human rights in the European Union  

Titles in the Complete series combine extracts from a wide range of primary materials with clear explanatory text to provide readers with a complete introductory resource. This chapter begins with a brief history of human rights protection in Europe, including the separate role of the Council of Europe and the ECHR, as well as that of the EU and EU law. It then discusses the development of human rights protection by the EU; the need for human rights protection against the EU and its Member States; the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU; the enforcement of human rights in EU law; and the possibility of EU accession to the ECHR.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Janko Rottmann v Freistaadt Bayern (Case C-135/08), EU:C:2010:104, [2010] ECR I-1449, 2 March 2010  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Janko Rottmann v Freistaadt Bayern (Case C-135/08), EU:C:2010:104, [2010] ECR I-1449, 2 March 2010. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Tjebbes and others v Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken (Case C-221/17), EU:C:2019:189, 12 March 2019  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Tjebbes and others v Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken (Case C-221/17), EU:C:2010:104, [2010] ECR I-1449, 12 March 2019. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Association belge des Consommateurs Test-Achats and others v Council (Case C-236/09), EU:C:2011:100, [2011] ECR I-773, 1 March 2011  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Association belge des Consommateurs Test-Achats and others v Council (Case C-236/09), EU:C:2011:100, [2011] ECR I-773, 1 March 2011. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O'Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Janko Rottmann v Freistaadt Bayern (Case C-135/08), EU:C:2010:104, [2010] ECR I-1449, 2 March 2010  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Janko Rottmann v Freistaadt Bayern (Case C-135/08), EU:C:2010:104, [2010] ECR I-1449, 2 March 2010. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Tjebbes and others v Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken (Case C-221/17), EU:C:2019:189, 12 March 2019  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Tjebbes and others v Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken (Case C-221/17), EU:C:2010:104, [2010] ECR I-1449, 12 March 2019. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: EU Law

Association belge des Consommateurs Test-Achats and others v Council (Case C-236/09), EU:C:2011:100, [2011] ECR I-773, 1 March 2011  

Essential Cases: EU Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Association belge des Consommateurs Test-Achats and others v Council (Case C-236/09), EU:C:2011:100, [2011] ECR I-773, 1 March 2011. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Noreen O’Meara.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to European Law

4. Fundamental Rights  

This chapter evaluates the European fundamental rights. Human rights constitutionally limit the exercise of all European Union competences—including its legislative competences. Three sources of European fundamental rights were subsequently developed: the ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law; the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR); and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. The chapter investigates these three bills of rights of the EU, beginning with the discovery of an ‘unwritten’ bill of rights in the form of general principles of European law. It then discusses possible structural limits to European human rights in the form of international obligations flowing from the United Nations Charter. The chapter also analyses the EU's ‘written’ bill of rights in the form of its Charter of Fundamental Rights. Finally, it explores the ECHR as an external bill of rights for the EU.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

25. Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU anti-discrimination law, which, over the past decade and a half, has expanded significantly to cover a wide range of grounds and contexts. In addition to requiring equal treatment for women and men, the Treaty provides legislative competence to combat discrimination on a range of grounds. The Charter of Fundamental Rights, which has a chapter devoted to equality, has been incorporated into the EU Treaties. Article 21 of the Charter prohibits discrimination on any ground. Articles 8 and 10 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contain horizontal clauses requiring the EU to promote equality between men and women, and to combat discrimination based on certain grounds, namely sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation in all of its policies and activities. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU discrimination law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

25. Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU anti-discrimination law, which, over the past decade and a half, has expanded significantly to cover a wide range of grounds and contexts. In addition to requiring equal treatment for women and men, the Treaty provides legislative competence to combat discrimination on a range of grounds. The Charter of Fundamental Rights, which has a chapter devoted to equality, has been incorporated into the EU Treaties. Article 21 of the Charter prohibits discrimination on any ground. Articles 8 and 10 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contain horizontal clauses requiring the EU to promote equality between men and women, and to combat discrimination based on certain grounds, namely sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation in all of its policies and activities. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU discrimination law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

6. General principles of law and the Charter of Fundamental Rights  

This chapter discusses the overarching principles of the Union legal order, e.g. subsidiarity, proportionality, sustainability and equality; fundamental human rights in the Union (Court of Justice jurisdiction over Member State acts and rights against Union institutions or agents); and principles of administrative justice and good governance (legal certainty, non-retroactivity and legitimate expectations, rights of process and natural justice, transparency and legal professional privilege).

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

13. Copyright and Related Rights Exceptions and Limitations  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter concludes the discussion of European copyright and related rights law by considering the exceptions and limitations permitted (and potentially, required) by Article 5(2) to (4) of the Information Society Directive. A central theme is the increasing challenge being presented to domestic law- and decision-making by the EU law of fundamental rights, including the growing body of EU case law regarding the implications of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the European Union for the scope and enforcement of copyright and related rights and the coherence and consistency of the emerging jurisprudence in this area.