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Chapter

This chapter discusses the sources, scope, and limitations of the four fundamental freedoms: thought, expression, association, and assembly. Freedom of thought includes freedom of conscience, religion, and belief. Freedom of expression includes freedom of opinion and freedom of information. Freedom of association concerns the right to establish autonomous organizations through which individuals pursue common interests together. The right of assembly protects non-violent, organized, temporary gatherings in public and private, both indoors and outdoors.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the sources, scope, and limitations of the four fundamental freedoms: thought, expression, association, and assembly. Freedom of thought includes freedom of conscience, religion, and belief. Freedom of expression includes freedom of opinion and freedom of information. Freedom of association concerns the right to establish autonomous organizations through which individuals pursue common interests together. The right of assembly protects non-violent, organized, temporary gatherings in public and private, both indoors and outdoors.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties; offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers freedom of religion, freedom of association, and the right to peaceful assembly, including the scope of those rights, their protection in domestic law and under the ECHR and their application to matters such as religious practices, trade unions, and political organisations, and the right to demonstrate.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties; offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers freedom of religion, freedom of association, and the right to peaceful assembly, including the scope of those rights, their protection in domestic law and under the ECHR and their application to matters such as religious practices, trade unions, and political organisations, and the right to demonstrate.

Chapter

This chapter presents an overview of the European Convention on Human Rights, an International treaty originating in the reconstruction of Europe’s political order following World War II. The chapter is organised as follows. Section I discusses the main procedural and substantive features of the Convention itself, whilst Section II assesses its status and use in English law up until (approximately) the early-1990s. Sections III and IV examine the leading judgments of the European Court on Human Rights in the areas of privacy and freedom of expression.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers freedom of speech and expression, including the scope of free speech and expression, its protection in domestic law and under the ECHR, and its application to areas such as public order, national security contempt of court, press freedom, and defamation law.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter covers freedom of speech and expression, including the scope of free speech and expression, its protection in domestic law and under the ECHR, and its application to areas such as public order, national security contempt of court, press freedom, and defamation law.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights, which guarantees freedom of expression. It first delineates the boundaries of protection of Article 10. It then turns to different categories of expression; specific issues relating to the press and media licensing; the standard ‘prescribed by law’; legitimate aims; the notion of ‘duties and responsibilities’ of the bearers of expression rights; and some distinct methodologies advanced by the Court to deal with defamation cases.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nature of free speech, first addressing the question of why free speech must be protected. It then discusses Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), media freedom, defamation, criminal offences, privacy, and official secrecy.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on freedom of religion and freedom of expression, which are classified as qualified rights, and examines Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which explains the right to hold or not hold a belief as well as the right to manifest a belief. It also considers how the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) decides if there has been manifestation of belief, interpretation of Article 10 with respect to views that shock and disturb and some forms of hate speech, and state restriction of expression. The chapter concludes with a discussion of freedom of religion and expression in the UK.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nascent ‘tort’ of invasion of privacy. It first considers why no free-standing tort of invasion of privacy exists, before looking at breach of confidence—a legal concept straddling tort and equity and concerned with ‘secrets’ and judicially adapted to protect privacy by developing the new tort of misuse of private information. The chapter then asks whether developments in the law protecting privacy—particularly in the wake of the Human Rights Act 1998—threaten freedom of expression and therefore the general public’s ‘right’ to information, particularly about celebrities, including royalty and politicians.

Chapter

This chapter examines the nascent ‘tort’ of invasion of privacy. It first considers why no free-standing tort of invasion of privacy exists, before looking at breach of confidence—a legal concept straddling tort and equity and concerned with ‘secrets’ and judicially adapted to protect privacy by developing the new tort of misuse of private information. The chapter then asks whether developments in the law protecting privacy—particularly in the wake of the Human Rights Act 1998—threaten freedom of expression and therefore the general public’s ‘right’ to information, particularly about celebrities, including royalty and politicians.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter briefly sets out the book's purpose, which is to assist students preparing for an examination in human rights and civil liberties, and also offers some suggestions regarding coursework and taking exams.

Book

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; make your answer stand out from the crowd. After an introduction, it covers: the nature and enforcement of human rights and civil liberties; the European Convention on Human Rights; the Human Rights Act 1998; the right to life; freedom from torture and inhuman and degrading treatment; due process, liberty and security of the person, and the right to a fair trial; prisoners’ rights; the right to private life; freedom of expression; and freedom of religion, association, and peaceful assembly.

Book

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. After an introduction, it covers: the nature and enforcement of human rights and civil liberties; the European Convention on Human Rights; the Human Rights Act 1998; the right to life; freedom from torture and inhuman and degrading treatment; due process, liberty and security of the person, and the right to a fair trial; prisoners’ rights; the right to private life; freedom of expression; and freedom of religion, association, and peaceful assembly.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, diagram answer plans, caution advice, suggested answers, illustrative diagrams and flowcharts, and advice on gaining extra marks. Concentrate Q&A Human Rights & Civil Liberties offers expert advice on what to expect from your human rights and civil liberties exam, how best to prepare, and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides: clear commentary with each question and answer; bullet point and diagram answer plans; tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd; and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help you to: identify typical law exam questions; structure a first-class answer; avoid common mistakes; show the examiner what you know; all making your answer stand out from the crowd. This chapter briefly sets out the book’s purpose, which is to assist students preparing for an examination in human rights and civil liberties, and also offers some suggestions regarding coursework and taking exams.

Book

Ruth Costigan and Richard Stone

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. Textbook on Civil Liberties and Human Rights provides an account of this area of law. This work covers all the main topics in the field of civil liberties and human rights. It provides coverage of crucial areas such as police powers, freedom of expression, terrorism, and public order. A thematic approach helps readers to appreciate the overlap and interconnected nature of the subject, and the close association between the different articles of the European Convention. Topics new to this edition include: Austin v UK on kettling and the deprivation of liberty; von Hannover v Germany (No 2) and Springer v Germany on privacy; Othman (Abu Qatada) v UK on asylum and fair trial rights; O’Donoghue and Others v UK on the right to marry; the Supreme Court’s views in R v Gul on the definition of terrorism; the Court of Appeal’s rulings in Hall v Bull and Black v Wilkinson on discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation where this conflicts with religious beliefs; Att Gen v Davey on contempt and the internet; and the Anti-Social Behaviour and Policing Act, which will replace ASBOs with Injunctions to Prevent Nuisance and Disorder.

Chapter

This chapter examines freedom of expression in international human rights law. It discusses the freedom of the press and media; overlap with other rights (correspondence, privacy, and association); and exceptions to freedom of expression. The chapter concludes that the scope of the freedom of expression is still evolving and that international bodies are struggling with the challenges of the information technology age.

Chapter

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Andclare Ovey

This chapter examines the protection of the freedom of expression in the European Convention on Human Rights, discusses the provisions of Article 10, and explains that the majority of cases concerning Article 10 are brought by persons who have received some penalty for defaming or insulting other people. It analyses what constitutes an interference with free expression and considers the limitations on freedom of expression. The chapter also examines the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court on several related cases, including those that involved incitement to violence and hate speech, obscenity, and blasphemy. It also covers the development of case-law concerning social media and the internet.

Chapter

This chapter examines freedom of expression in international human rights law. It discusses the freedom of the press and media; overlap with other rights (correspondence, privacy, and association); and some of the permissible exceptions to freedom of expression. Freedom of expression is more complex than perhaps first appears. There are many situations in which law is engaged to ensure an appropriate balance is struck between competing claims. There are also diverse views on the appropriateness of limiting the exercise of the freedom. The chapter concludes that the scope of the freedom of expression is still evolving and that international bodies are struggling with the challenges of the information technology age.