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Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

18. Company Law III  

Company Meetings, Shareholder Protection, and Liquidation of Companies

This chapter discusses the different types of company meetings and how meetings are convened and managed. It examines the different types of resolutions that may be made by shareholders both at meetings and outside meetings, and the rights of shareholders to propose their own resolutions. It explains the difference between voting by a show of hands and voting by poll. It considers the protection given by law to minority shareholders. It discusses the meaning of insider dealing and market abuse and the penalties they attract. The chapter concludes with a discussion of methods by which a company can be wound up and the meaning of wrongful and fraudulent trading.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French & Ryan on Company Law

20. Company insolvency and liquidation  

This chapter deals with procedures and legislation governing the insolvency and liquidation of a company and who are qualified as insolvency practitioners. It discusses insolvency procedures such as administration, voluntary arrangement, creditors’ voluntary winding up, winding up by the court and the appointment of a provisional liquidator. It considers the effect of insolvency and liquidation procedures on floating charges, court control of insolvency and liquidation procedures, and liability for fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. The legal principles underlying disqualification orders against a company’s directors, the use of an insolvent company’s name, the order of the application of assets in liquidation and the dissolution of a company are also examined.

Chapter

Cover Mayson, French, and Ryan on Company Law

20. Company insolvency and liquidation  

This chapter deals with procedures and legislation governing the insolvency and liquidation of a company and who are qualified as insolvency practitioners. It discusses insolvency procedures such as administration, voluntary arrangement, creditors’ voluntary winding up, winding up by the court and the appointment of a provisional liquidator. It considers the effect of insolvency and liquidation procedures on floating charges, court control of insolvency and liquidation procedures, and liability for fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. The legal principles underlying disqualification orders against a company’s directors, the use of an insolvent company’s name, the order of the application of assets in liquidation and the dissolution of a company are also examined.

Chapter

Cover Company Law

15. Directors’ liabilities and vulnerable transactions on insolvency  

This chapter considers directors’ liabilities on a company going into insolvency. Redress for breach of duty by directors is available through summary action for misfeasance (IA 1986, s 212), fraudulent trading (ss 213, 246ZA), and wrongful trading (ss 214, 246ZB). The scope of these provisions is considered in detail together with the relevant case law. Wrongful trading is potentially a valuable remedy but it is somewhat underused. It may be advantageous instead to challenge certain transactions by the directors prior to insolvency; for example, as transactions at an undervalue (s 238) or preferences (s 239). More broadly, the overall conduct of the directors is reviewed in order to determine whether disqualification is appropriate on the grounds, usually, that they are unfit. All of these matters are addressed in this chapter.

Chapter

Cover Koffman, Macdonald & Atkins' Law of Contract

13. Misrepresentation  

This chapter looks at misrepresentation. It first identifies the requirements for a misrepresentation, and highlights the situations in which the courts are willing to find misrepresentations although prima facie there are only statements of opinion which are stated not to suffice in themselves. It considers the remedy of rescission, and when it will be barred. It looks at the different ways in which damages may be provided for misrepresentation: for fraudulent misrepresentation under the tort of deceit; for negligent misrepresentation under the tort of negligent misrepresentation; and for negligent misrepresentation under s2(1) of the Misrepresentation Act 1967. It looks at the different requirements for each type, which it will be advisable to use, and what will be covered by a damages remedy for misrepresentation. Consideration is also given to remedies for aggressive and misleading trade practices under the amended Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Company Law

7. Creditors  

Because of limited liability, creditor protection has always been a feature of company law. Large creditors can contract ex ante for customised protection and the law facilitates this in various ways, notably by the creation of the floating charge. Non-adjusting creditors require the protection of mandatory rules, at least in some situations. Creditor protection in relation to companies in the vicinity of insolvency is now well established, not only through ‘wrongful trading’ but also via transaction invalidity rules and directors’ disqualification. For going-concern companies the emphasis is on rules restricting the shifting assets to shareholders via distributions and associated rules relating to the maintenance of capital.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Concentrate

9. Misrepresentation  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the identification of actionable misrepresentations which affect the fairness of the process by which a contract was entered into, and render that contract voidable for misrepresentation (liable to be set aside and the parties restored to their pre-contractual positions). It identifies three types of misrepresentation depending on the state of mind of the misrepresentor: fraudulent, negligent, or innocent. It distinguishes between remedies available for the different types of pre-contractual statements, specifically rescission and damages for the different types of misrepresentations, and briefly explains the distinction between commercial contracts and the remedies available to consumers under the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008.