1-8 of 8 Results

  • Keyword: foreign judgments x
Clear all

Chapter

The enforcement of a judgment is an issue that must be considered and managed as part of the litigation project from the start. Keeping enforcement in mind at each stage of the litigation process ensures that any possible problems with enforcement are taken into account in any cost-benefit analysis or risk assessment. This chapter first outlines the steps to assist enforcement, which includes deciding who to sue, gathering information, interim orders, settling the case, and drafting orders. It then discusses the methods of enforcing a judgment, including third party debt orders, changing orders, attachment of earnings, winding up and bankruptcy, execution against goods, orders for delivery/possession, receivership, and the use of contempt of court proceedings. The final section deals with the international enforcement of judgements, specifically enforcing a foreign judgment in the UK and enforcing an English judgment in another country.

Chapter

This chapter describes different ways in which evidence may be given of certain matters that frequently have to be proved in litigation. Proof of foreign law, identity, birth, death, age, marriage and legitimacy, judgments, convictions, and other orders of the court are discussed here. With foreign law, the general rule is that it must be proved by an expert witness. For questions of identification, the question of evidence becomes more complicated, with the chapter exploring direct, circumstantial, and presumptive evidence in relation to identity. After a brief look into birth, death, age, marriage, and legitimacy, the chapter finally turns to the proof of judgments and convictions.

Chapter

Parties occasionally refuse to comply with the judgments and orders of the court. A range of enforcement procedures is available to ensure compliance. This chapter discusses enforcement of money judgments; enforcement of judgments for the delivery of goods; enforcement of judgments for the possession of land; contempt of court; and enforcement of foreign judgments.

Chapter

Parties occasionally refuse to comply with the judgments and orders of the court. A range of enforcement procedures is available to ensure compliance. This chapter discusses enforcement of money judgments; enforcement of judgments for the delivery of goods; enforcement of judgments for the possession of land; contempt of court; and enforcement of foreign judgments.

Chapter

Parties occasionally refuse to comply with the judgments and orders of the court. A range of enforcement procedures is available to ensure compliance. This chapter discusses enforcement of money judgments; enforcement of judgments for the delivery of goods; enforcement of judgments for the possession of land; contempt of court; and enforcement of foreign judgments.

Chapter

Jonathan Hill

This chapter deals with the recognition of enforcement of foreign judgments by English courts. The crucial question is not whether foreign judgments should be recognised and enforced in England but which judgments should be recognised and enforced. There are, broadly speaking, two theories. The first is the theory of obligation, which is premised on the notion that if the original court assumed jurisdiction on a proper basis the court's judgment should prima facie be regarded as creating an obligation between the parties to the foreign proceedings which the English court ought to recognise and, where appropriate, enforce. The alternative theory is based on the idea of reciprocity: the courts of country X should recognise and enforce the judgments of country Y if, mutatis mutandis, the courts of country Y recognise and enforce the judgments of country X. Whichever theory is adopted, the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments is limited by a range of defences which may be invoked by the party wishing to resist the judgment in question. It would be unrealistic to expect the English court to give effect to a foreign judgment which conflicts with fundamental notions of justice and fairness. So, the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments is a two-stage process: Are the basic conditions for recognition or enforcement satisfied? If so, is there a defence by reason of which the foreign judgment should nevertheless not be recognised or enforced? The remainder of the chapter discusses the recognition and enforcement at common law; statutory regimes based on the common law; recognition and enforcement under the Brussels I Recast; and United Kingdom judgments.

Chapter

Jonathan Hill

This introductory chapter begins by explaining the nature of the subject known as conflict of laws or private international law, which deals with cases before the English court which have connections with foreign countries. The foreign elements in the case may be events which have taken place in a foreign country or countries, or they may be the foreign domicile, residence, or place of business of the parties. In short, any case involving a foreign element raises potential conflict of laws issues. The conflict of laws is concerned with the following three questions: jurisdiction; choice of law; and the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. The remainder of the chapter discusses the various stages of proceedings which raise conflict of laws issues.

Chapter

The object of jurisdictional rules is to determine an appropriate forum and choice of law rules are designed to lead to the application of the most appropriate law, the law that generally the parties might reasonably expect to apply. The test for recognition of foreign judgments is not dissimilar. A judgment granted by an appropriate forum should normally be recognised. The problem is one of ascertaining the connecting factor (or factors) which would best satisfy the criterion of appropriateness. With regards to personal connecting factors, there is little international agreement as to the appropriate test of ‘belonging’. In England and most common law countries, the traditional personal connecting factor is domicile, which loosely translates as a person's permanent home. One of the problems here is that domicile is a connecting factor which is interpreted differently in various parts of the world. In contrast, most of continental Europe and other civil law countries have traditionally used nationality as the basic connecting factor, especially for choice of law purposes; the personal law is the law of the country of which the person is a citizen. In some countries, including England, another connecting factor, habitual residence, has emerged. This is increasingly being used for the purposes of jurisdiction rules and in the law relating to recognition of foreign judgments. This chapter examines each of these personal connecting factors. Primary emphasis is laid on domicile and habitual residence as the two main connecting factors employed by English law.