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Chapter

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Andclare Ovey

This chapter, which examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights against slavery and forced labour, discusses the provisions of Article 4 and the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court in cases such as human trafficking. It considers the developments concerning human trafficking in cases such as Rantsev, which expanded on the positive obligations placed on the State.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to “modern slavery” is discussed.

Chapter

This chapter, which examines the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights against slavery and forced labour, discusses the provisions of Article 4 and the judgments made by the Strasbourg Court in cases such as human trafficking. It considers the developments concerning human trafficking in cases such as Rantsev, which expanded on the positive obligations placed on the State. The chapter examines how the Court has developed the interpretation of slavery in light of international Conventions on human trafficking and the relationship between human trafficking and forced labour. The chapter also examines the interpretation of forced labour, including in relation to employment, prisoners, and military service.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights. ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to ‘modern slavery’ is discussed.

Chapter

David Harris, Michael O’Boyle, Ed Bates, and Carla Buckley

This chapter discusses Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Article 4 prohibits slavery, servitude, and forced or compulsory labour. The Court has extended the scope of Article 4 to cover ‘domestic slavery’ and human trafficking. In particular, states have positive obligations to act against conduct by private employers or persons involved in trafficking. Whereas the prohibitions of slavery and servitude are absolute, certain forms of forced or compulsory labour are permitted, for example in fulfilment of a civic duty and work by a convicted prisoner.

Book

Bernadette Rainey, Elizabeth Wicks, and Clare Ovey

Nearly seventy years after the founding of the European Court of Human Rights it has dispensed more than 20,000 judgments and affects the lives of over 800 million people. The seventh edition of Jacobs, White & Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights provides an analysis of this area of the law. Examining each of the Convention rights in turn, this book lays out the key principles. Updated with all the significant developments of the previous three years, it offers a synthesis of commentary and carefully selected case-law, focusing on the European Convention itself rather than its implementation in any one Member State. Part 1 of the book looks at institutions and procedures, including the context, enforcement, and scope of the Convention. Part 2 examines Convention rights in terms of many aspects, including rights to remedy, rights to life, prohibition of torture, protection from slavery and forced labour, and family and private life. Part 2 also examines the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; the freedom of expression; and the freedom of assembly and association. The rights to education and elections are considered towards the end of Part 2, as are the freedoms of movement and from discrimination. Part 3 reflects on the achievements and criticisms of the Court and examines the prospects and challenges facing the Court in the present political climate and in the future.

Book

Bernadette Rainey, Pamela McCormick, and Clare Ovey

Seventy years after the founding of the European Court of Human Rights it has dispensed more than 22,000 judgments and affects the lives of over 800 million people. The eighth edition of Jacobs, White & Ovey: The European Convention on Human Rights provides an analysis of this area of the law. Examining each of the Convention rights in turn, this book lays out the key principles. Updated with all the significant developments of the previous three years, it offers a synthesis of commentary and carefully selected case-law, focusing on the European Convention itself rather than its implementation in any one Member State. Part 1 of the book looks at institutions and procedures, including the context, enforcement, and scope of the Convention. Part 2 examines each of the Convention rights including the right to a remedy, right to life, prohibition of torture, protection from slavery and forced labour, and respect for family and private life. Part 2 also examines the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; the freedom of expression; and the freedom of assembly and association. The rights to education and elections are considered towards the end of Part 2, as are the freedoms of movement and from discrimination. Part 3 reflects on the achievements and criticisms of the Court and examines the prospects and challenges facing the Court in the present political climate and in the future.