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Chapter

The majority of companies rely on commercial borrowing—loan capital—from high street banks and financial institutions. The lender will need security to cover the amount lent. This chapter discusses: company charges, fixed and floating charges, the approach to categorisation, registration of charges, and enforcement of a floating charge. The key concern for the creditor is to obtain the maximum security while the company is concerned to have the maximum freedom to act. The distinction between fixed and floating charges is considered and the characteristics of a floating charge are discussed with particular regard to charges on book debts. The chapter also considers the registration requirements with the registrar of companies.

Chapter

D Fox, RJC Munday, B Soyer, AM Tettenborn, and PG Turner

This chapter focuses on non-possessory security. It begins with a discussion of mortgages and their definitions. A mortgage involves the transfer of ownership of property from the mortgagor (the debtor or a third party) to the mortgagee (the creditor) as security for a debt or other obligation. The chapter then considers equitable charges and their definition, which include fixed and floating charges, before moving on to consider equitable liens. The chapter also examines statutory control with respect to non-possessory security, with particular emphasis on the protection of third parties and debtors.

Chapter

This chapter considers borrowing as an important method of financing a company’s activities, and security as a right of recourse against company property if the loan is not repaid on time. It begins by discussing security for financial obligations, paying particular attention to security contracts, the redemption or discharge of security and the realisation of security. It then turns to the registration of non-possessory security contracts, the priorities of legal and equitable charges and floating charges as a form of security and their crystallisation. The extent to which the assets of a company, to which anyone is considering extending credit, are already charged as security is also explained. The chapter considers three particularly significant court cases: Evans v Rival Granite Quarries Ltd [1910] 2 KB 979; Re Spectrum Plus Ltd [2005] UKHL 41, [2005] 2 AC 680; and Re Yorkshire Woolcombers Association Ltd [1903] 2 Ch 284.

Chapter

This chapter considers borrowing as an important method of financing a company’s activities, and security as a right of recourse against company property if the loan is not repaid on time. It begins by discussing security for financial obligations, paying particular attention to security contracts, the redemption or discharge of security and the realisation of security. It then turns to the registration of non-possessory security contracts, the priorities of legal and equitable charges and floating charges as a form of security and their crystallisation. The extent to which the assets of a company, to which anyone is considering extending credit, are already charged as security is also explained. The chapter considers three particularly significant court cases: Evans v Rival Granite Quarries Ltd [1910] 2 KB 979; Re Spectrum Plus Ltd [2005] UKHL 41, [2005] 2 AC 680; and Re Yorkshire Woolcombers Association Ltd [1903] 2 Ch 284.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on corporate debt, first considering several special features of corporate borrowing. It then discusses: debentures; secured debt (mortgages, fixed and floating charges); debenture holders’ remedies and the protection afforded by charges; the requirement to register charges; fixed and floating charges; the creation and effect of floating charges; distinguishing between fixed and floating charges; and the use of alternative security devices (‘quasi-security’) such as retention of title agreements.

Chapter

This chapter examines the principal constituents who make up and contribute to the success of companies in the UK. The role of the members is discussed, especially their role in corporate decision making. What is a director and the powers of the board of directors are examined, as well as a discussion of the appointment and remuneration of directors. The importance of the company secretary is examined. The chapter than looks at the role of the company’s auditor as well as the liability that can be imposed upon a negligent auditor. Finally, the chapter looks at the position occupied by a company’s creditors and examines how they can protect themselves via taking security, such as a fixed or floating charge over the company’s assets.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the two principal types of capital that companies acquire: share capital (capital obtained by selling shares) and debt capital (capital borrowed from others). Having obtained share capital through the selling of shares, the law requires that the company ‘maintain’ that capital by not distributing it in unauthorized ways, notably by prohibiting companies from returning capital to the shareholders prior to liquidation.

Chapter

This chapter focuses on corporate debt, first considering several special features of corporate borrowing. It then discusses: debentures; secured debt (mortgages, fixed and floating charges); debenture holders’ remedies and the protection afforded by charges; the requirement to register charges; fixed and floating charges; the creation and effect of floating charges; distinguishing between fixed and floating charges; and the use of alternative security devices (‘quasi-security’) such as retention of title agreements.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines loan capital—borrowing by companies. It focuses on: the legal distinction between fixed and floating charges created by companies over their assets as security for loans, the registration of charges, applications for extension of the period for registration, the priority of charges on insolvency, and the avoidance of charges under the Insolvency Act 1986.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses corporate borrowing through debentures or debenture stock, as well as fixed and floating charges that companies issue to creditors as security interests. It begins by outlining some important distinctions between the ability of small and large companies to raise loan capital. It then considers the priority of secured creditors and the registration requirements for charges, the issue of whether or not a fixed charge could be created over a company’s book debts, provisions for automatic crystallisation that converts the floating charge into an equitable fixed charge over company assets, and reform of security interests.

Chapter

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses corporate borrowing through debentures or debenture stock, as well as fixed and floating charges that companies issue to creditors as security interests. It begins by outlining some important distinctions between the ability of small and large companies to raise loan capital. It then considers the priority of secured creditors and the registration requirements for charges, the issue of whether or not a fixed charge could be created over a company’s book debts, provisions for automatic crystallisation that converts the floating charge into an equitable fixed charge over company assets, and reform of security interests.

Chapter

This chapter considers the rules that enable insolvency practitioners to claim assets which are not held by the insolvent company itself. It discusses wrongful trading; transactions at an undervalue and preferences; transactions defrauding creditors; and invalid floating charges.

Chapter

The majority of companies on the register of companies are private companies with very limited amounts of share capital. Thus, if those companies are carrying on business to any significant level, it must be on the basis of other forms of funding, typically in the form of straightforward commercial borrowing from high street banks and financial institutions. When lending to a limited liability company, the lender is conscious of the need for security to cover the amount lent. This chapter discusses: company charges; fixed and floating charges; the approach to categorisation; registration of charges; and enforcement of a floating charge.

Chapter

This chapter considers the rules that enable insolvency practitioners to claim assets which are not held by the insolvent company itself. It discusses wrongful trading; transactions at an undervalue and preferences; transactions defrauding creditors; and invalid floating charges.

Chapter

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, suggested answers with commentary, illustrative diagrams, guidance on how to develop your answer, suggestions for further reading, and advice on exams and coursework. This chapter examines the law on corporate insolvency. It considers the important and topical subject of corporate rescue, reviewing, in particular, administration and company voluntary arrangements. The chapter addresses several issues relating to liquidation, including: winding up petitions and the meaning of ‘inability to pay debts’; assets available to creditors; distribution of assets to creditors; priority of claims; the pari passu principle; and transaction avoidance (dispositions of property after the commencement of winding up, transactions at an undervalue, preferences, voidable floating charges, and transactions defrauding creditors). The potential liability of directors on a company’s insolvent liquidation is considered, concentrating on wrongful and fraudulent trading and disqualification.

Chapter

This chapter deals with procedures and legislation governing the insolvency and liquidation of a company and who are qualified as insolvency practitioners. It discusses insolvency procedures such as administration, voluntary arrangement, creditors’ voluntary winding up, winding up by the court and the appointment of a provisional liquidator. It considers the effect of insolvency and liquidation procedures on floating charges, court control of insolvency and liquidation procedures, and liability for fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. The legal principles underlying disqualification orders against a company’s directors, the use of an insolvent company’s name, the order of the application of assets in liquidation and the dissolution of a company are also examined.

Chapter

Because of limited liability, creditor protection has always been a feature of company law. Large creditors can contract ex ante for customised protection and the law facilitates this in various ways, notably by the creation of the floating charge. Non-adjusting creditors require the protection of mandatory rules, at least in some situations. Creditor protection in relation to companies in the vicinity of insolvency is now well established, not only through ‘wrongful trading’ but also via transaction invalidity rules and directors’ disqualification. For going-concern companies the emphasis is on rules restricting the shifting assets to shareholders via distributions and associated rules relating to the maintenance of capital.