1-2 of 2 Results

  • Keyword: extrinsic evidence x
Clear all


Cover Borkowski's Law of Succession

7. Construction of Wills  

This chapter discusses the construction of wills. The law of construction is a mixture of general principles and specific rules, developed mainly by the courts, but with some help from Parliament. To some extent, the general principles of construction can be regarded as broad guidelines to the court rather than as strictly binding. Consequently, some judges will feel that they have room for the exercise of a degree of discretion in achieving the result they think is merited on the facts of the case. Moreover, there is no universal agreement as to what constitutes a principle or a rule in this context. The remainder of the chapter covers the specific rules of construction and extrinsic evidence.


Cover JC Smith's The Law of Contract

11. Identifying the terms of a contract  

This chapter discusses the terms of a contract. It first examines the distinction between a ‘term’ and a ‘representation’, before considering how those terms can be incorporated into a contract. It then discusses the nature of the contract being examined—even if the relevant term is not to be found in the ‘main’ contract, it may be found in a ‘collateral’, or ancillary, contract. Finally, the chapter addresses the ‘parol evidence rule’, which essentially states that where there is a written contract, extrinsic evidence cannot be used to establish other terms. This rule is riddled with exceptions and often dismissed, although it is suggested that it should not be entirely discarded.