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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Aslan v Murphy (Nos 1 and 2); Duke v Wynne [1990] 1 WLR 766, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Aslan v Murphy (Nos 1 and 2); Duke v Wynne [1990] 1 WLR 766, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Aslan v Murphy (Nos 1 and 2); Duke v Wynne [1990] 1 WLR 766, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Aslan v Murphy (Nos 1 and 2); Duke v Wynne [1990] 1 WLR 766, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Land Law Concentrate

6. The leasehold estate  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the leasehold estate. A lease is one of the estates in land capable of being legal. Without both certainty of term and exclusive possession there can be no lease, although the presence of both does not necessarily mean that a lease exists. Formalities for the creation of a legal lease differ depending upon the duration of the lease. Where these formalities have not been met, an equitable lease may exist provided there is a valid contract capable of specific performance. An equitable lease is not as good as the legal equivalent. The most common types of leases are fixed term and periodic. The process of terminating a lease by forfeiture varies depending upon the type of covenant breached.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

13. The Judicial Review Procedure  

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the judicial review procedure, with particular emphasis on two issues: first, what judicial review procedure which claimants seeking a prerogative remedy are required to use; second, the extent to which a claimant seeking to raise a public law matter may avoid having to use the judicial review procedure by issuing a claim for an injunction or declaration. After providing a background on the origins of today's judicial review procedure, the chapter discusses the nature of the judicial review procedure and the impact of human rights claims on judicial review procedure. It also considers when the judicial review procedure must be used, focusing on procedural exclusivity, waiver of exclusivity, defensive use of public law arguments, and the connection between private law rights and public law.

Chapter

Cover Holyoak and Torremans Intellectual Property Law

18. Dealing in copyright  

This chapter discusses the commercial exploitation of copyright, both in a domestic and in a European context. It covers the Crown copyright in the UK; commercial exploitation of copyright in the UK; and exploitation under European law, i.e. friction with the free movement of goods and competition law.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Bruton v London & Quadrant Housing Trust [1999] 1 AC 406, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Bruton v London & Quadrant Housing Trust [1999] 1 AC 406, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover European Intellectual Property Law

22. Data Protection and Data Exclusivity  

Justine Pila and Paul L.C. Torremans

This chapter examines the law on data protection and data exclusivity. It focuses on the new GDPR Regulation. It covers rules on lawful processing of personal data, on the security of the processing, on the transparency of the processing, and on promoting compliance. It also discusses the rights of the data subject, the transfer of personal data to third countries, and the period of data exclusivity granted to the pharmaceutical sector independent of any form of patent protection.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Bruton v London & Quadrant Housing Trust [1999] 1 AC 406, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Bruton v London & Quadrant Housing Trust [1999] 1 AC 406, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Land Law

Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

11. Judicial review: access to review and remedies  

This chapter provides an introduction to judicial review and its various features and requirements. It starts by exploring the meaning and purpose of judicial review, explaining the particular functions of the courts and the jurisdiction that justifies their scrutiny of administrative matters. It then sets out the legal basis for judicial review and the process through which applications proceed, which while rooted in statute, has developed incrementally through both case law and the 1998 Woolf Reforms. The chapter considers issues relating to access to review, exploring the legal requirements that must be fulfilled before an application for judicial review can be entertained by the Administrative Court. This includes a discussion of standing, which determines who can bring a claim, and consideration of the issues relating to the public law/private law divide, which concerns against whom a claim can be brought and the matter upon which that claim can be founded.

Chapter

Cover Land Law

9. Leases  

This chapter examines the lease and its importance and place in modern land law. Leases embrace a multiplicity of contexts from the residential to the commercial to the agricultural. This chapter considers the essential nature and ingredients of a lease, focusing on the central distinguishing of leases: exclusive possession. The chapter also considers the different types of leases that exists as well as how leases are created and can be brought to an end. The key distinguishing feature of a lease as opposed to a licence is its ability to bind third parties as a proprietary right. It is this proprietary status that gives the lease its potency.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

4. Copyright 3: economic rights and infringement  

This chapter considers the ‘economic rights’ the copyright owner enjoys while copyright protection endures. These are the rights that the Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988) calls ‘acts restricted by copyright’, which may be exploited by transferring them to others or licensing others to use them for a price. The chapter discusses the rights flowing from ownership of copyright and the international framework that underpins them, noting the influence upon UK law of a number of EU Directives. It identifies the general principles pertaining to infringement of economic rights, before turning to the detailed rules on each economic right: to make copies, issue copies to the public; rent or lend commercially to the public; perform, show, or play in public; communication to the public; and make adaptations. It discusses authorisation of infringement (accessory liability) in relation to these economic rights, and finally considers secondary infringement of copyright.

Chapter

Cover Cases and Materials on Constitutional and Administrative Law

11. The Availability of Judicial Review  

This chapter deals with the availability of judicial review and its significance in the constitution. First, it considers the claim for judicial review and the exclusivity principle. It determines who can apply for judicial review and against whom and in respect of what activities judicial review may be sought. Next, it examines the discretionary nature of the remedies available in judicial review proceedings, including how the courts exercise this discretion. The chapter concludes with an examination of the courts’ response to legislative attempts to exclude or oust judicial review.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

11. Illegality  

Robert Merkin and Séverine Saintier

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. A contract may be deemed illegal or void on grounds of public policy. This chapter examines the illegality of contracts under English law, contracts prohibited by statute (express prohibition), and contracts that are illegal in their performance. It considers contracts that are void on grounds of public policy, focusing on contracts in restraint of trade, covenants between employer and employee, exclusive dealing agreements, exclusive service agreements, and severance of the objectionable parts of covenants. The chapter also discusses the recovery of money or property transferred under an illegal contract, along with the UK Law Commission’s proposed reform of the law governing illegal contracts and the Supreme Court decision of Patel v Mirza over controversy concerning the nature of illegality, the basis for intervention in illegal contracts, and the ability to recover under an illegal contract.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Casebook on Contract Law

11. Illegality  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Poole’s Casebook on Contract Law provides a comprehensive selection of case law that addresses all aspects of the subject encountered on undergraduate courses. A contract may be deemed illegal or void on grounds of public policy. This chapter examines the illegality of contracts under English law, contracts prohibited by statute (express prohibition), and contracts that are illegal in their performance. It considers contracts that are void on grounds of public policy, focusing on contracts in restraint of trade, covenants between employer and employee, exclusive dealing agreements, exclusive service agreements, and severance of the objectionable parts of covenants. The chapter also discusses the recovery of money or property transferred under an illegal contract, along with the UK Law Commission’s proposed reform of the law governing illegal contracts and the Supreme Court decision of Patel v Mirza over controversy concerning the nature of illegality, the basis for intervention in illegal contracts, and the ability to recover under an illegal contract.

Chapter

Cover Contemporary Intellectual Property

4. Copyright 3: economic rights and infringement  

This chapter considers the ‘economic rights’ the copyright owner enjoys while copyright protection endures. These are the rights that the Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988) calls ‘acts restricted by copyright’, which may be exploited by transferring them to others or licensing others to use them for a price. The chapter discusses the rights flowing from ownership of copyright and the international framework that underpins them, noting the influence upon UK law of a number of EU directives. It identifies the general principles pertaining to infringement of economic rights, before turning to the detailed rules on each economic right: to make copies; issue copies to the public; rent or lend commercially to the public; perform, show, or play in public; communication to the public; and make adaptations. It discusses authorisation of infringement (accessory liability) in relation to these economic rights, and finally considers secondary infringement of copyright.

Chapter

Cover Textbook on Land Law

9. The leasehold estate  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on Land Law provides an accessible overview of one key area on the law curriculum. This chapter considers the nature and characteristics of a lease, and the ways in which it is created and brought to an end. It illustrates the law by reference to 5 Trant Way, a property comprising a maisonette and a basement flat, both of which are to be separately let for different periods of time (a weekly tenancy and a 99-year lease). It discusses the distinction between leases and licences and the basic requirements for creating a lease rather than a licence; the formality rules governing the creation of leases and their transfer; the determination of leases, including by joint tenants; and the ‘contractualisation’ of leases.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law

17. Abuse of dominance (1): non-pricing practices  

This chapter considers abusive non-pricing practices under Article 102 TFEU and the Chapter II prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. It deals in turn with exclusive dealing agreements; tying; refusals to supply; abusive non-pricing practices that are harmful to the single market; and miscellaneous other non-pricing practices which might infringe Article 102 or the Chapter II prohibition. Reference is made to the case-law of the Court of Justice and the Commission’s Guidance on the Commission’s Enforcement Priorities in Applying Article [102 TFEU] to Abusive Exclusionary Conduct by Dominant Undertakings

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

11. Exploitation and Use of Copyright  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the ways in which copyright can be exploited or transferred, with emphasis on the two most important forms of exploitation: assignment and licensing. It also discusses the transfer of copyright in the case of mortgages, bankruptcy, or death, as well as situations in which compulsory licences and voluntary licences are used to exploit copyright. In addition, the chapter considers testamentary dispositions, techniques for exploiting works that rely on the use of technological protection measures, and the role of collecting societies in copyright exploitation.