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Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the judicial review procedure, with particular emphasis on two issues: first, what judicial review procedure which claimants seeking a prerogative remedy are required to use; second, the extent to which a claimant seeking to raise a public law matter may avoid having to use the judicial review procedure by issuing a claim for an injunction or declaration. After providing a background on the origins of today's judicial review procedure, the chapter discusses the nature of the judicial review procedure and the impact of human rights claims on judicial review procedure. It also considers when the judicial review procedure must be used, focusing on procedural exclusivity, waiver of exclusivity, defensive use of public law arguments, and the connection between private law rights and public law.

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Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

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Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Land Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Street v Mountford [1985] AC 809, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Aruna Nair.

Chapter

3. Copyright II  

Authorship, Ownership, Exploitation, Term, Moral Rights, and Economic Rights

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses principles relating to the authorship and ownership of copyright, and the significance of this designation. It examines how owners of copyright can exploit their works by either assignment or licence and the circumstances in which courts can imply terms in the absence of parties having agreed as to how a copyright work can be exploited. The chapter discusses the term of copyright protection and also examines exclusive rights, both moral and economic in nature, that authors and owners respectively have in their copyright works.

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All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses principles relating to the authorship and ownership of copyright, and the significance of this designation. It examines how owners of copyright can exploit their works by either assignment or licence and the circumstances in which courts can imply terms in the absence of parties having agreed as to how a copyright work can be exploited. The chapter discusses the term of copyright protection and also examines exclusive rights, both moral and economic in nature, that authors and owners respectively have in their copyright works.

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This chapter considers the ‘economic rights’ the copyright owner enjoys while copyright protection endures. These are the rights that the Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988 (CDPA 1988) calls ‘acts restricted by copyright’, which may be exploited by transferring them to others or licensing others to use them for a price. The chapter discusses the rights flowing from ownership of copyright and the international framework that underpins them, noting the influence upon UK law of a number of EU Directives. It identifies the general principles pertaining to infringement of economic rights, before turning to the detailed rules on each economic right: to make copies, issue copies to the public; rent or lend commercially to the public; perform, show, or play in public; communication to the public; and make adaptations. It discusses authorisation of infringement (accessory liability) in relation to these economic rights, and finally considers secondary infringement of copyright.

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This chapter examines how competition law applies to the actions of the State when it intervenes in the market through undertakings which it controls or owns or which it places in a privileged position. The discussion includes the principle of Union loyalty in Article 4(3) TEU; Article 106(1); Article 106(2); and the Commission’s supervisory and policing powers in Article 106(3). Article 106(1) is a prohibition addressed to Member States against enacting or maintaining in force any measure in relation to public undertakings or undertakings to which they have granted special or exclusive rights which are contrary to the Treaty rules. The chapter discusses what is meant by ‘public undertakings’ and ‘special or exclusive rights’ and examines in the light of the case law what measures are forbidden by Article 106(1), including those involving the cumulation of rights, the extension of a dominant position from one market to another, and the creation of situations of inequality of opportunity. Article 106(2) gives a limited derogation from Article 106(2) to undertakings entrusted with the operation of services of general economic interest (SGEIs). The chapter discusses the concept of ‘services of general economic interest’ and examines the cases in which the derogation has been applied or not applied, including the application of Article 106(2) to compensation for the provision of SGEIs which constitutes State aid. The chapter also considers Article 106(3) and the question of the direct effect of Article 106(1) and (2).

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This chapter examines the obligations of Member States in relation to EU competition law. Specifically, it considers the obligations that Article 4(3) TEU and Articles 37 and 106 TFEU place upon Member States. Article 4(3) requires all Member States to take all appropriate measures to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties, and to avoid any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the EU’s objectives. Article 106 particularly obligates Member States to refrain from enacting or maintaining measures contrary to the rules provided in Article 18 and Articles 101 to 109 of the TFEU. Article 37 is concerned with the procurement of goods.

Chapter

This chapter examines the obligations of Member States in relation to EU competition law. Specifically, it considers the obligations that Article 4(3) TEU and Articles 37 and 106 TFEU place upon Member States. Article 4(3) requires all Member States to take all appropriate measures to ensure fulfilment of the obligations arising out of the Treaties, and to avoid any measure which could jeopardise the attainment of the EUs objectives. Article 106 particularly obligates Member States to refrain from enacting or maintaining measures, contrary to the rules provided in Article 18 and Articles 101 to 109 of the TFEU. Article 37 is concerned with state monopolies of a commercial character.