1-20 of 40 Results

  • Keyword: exclusion x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

10. Visual and voice identification  

This chapter considers the risk of mistaken identification, and the law and procedure relating to evidence of visual and voice identification. In respect of evidence of visual identification, the chapter addresses: the Turnbull guidelines, including when a judge should stop a case and the direction to be given to the jury; visual recognition, including recognition by the jury themselves from a film, photograph, or other image; evidence of analysis of films, photographs, or other images; pre-trial procedure, including procedure relating to recognition by a witness from viewing films, photographs, either formally or informally; and admissibility where there have been breaches of pre-trial procedure. In respect of evidence of voice identification, the chapter addresses: pre-trial procedure; voice comparison by the jury with the assistance of experts or lay listeners; and the warning to be given to the jury (essentially an adaption of the Turnbull warning, but with particular focus on the factors which might affect the reliability of voice identification).

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

14. Hearsay admissible at common law  

This chapter considers the following categories of hearsay: statements in public documents, works of reference, evidence of birth, age, and death, evidence of reputation, statements forming part of the res gestae, and statements which are admissions made by an agent of a defendant. All of these categories were established at common law as exceptions to the rule against hearsay, and all of them have been preserved by statute. The categories relating to age and res gestae have been preserved in criminal but not civil proceedings. All of the other categories have been preserved in both criminal and civil proceedings.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

15. Confessions  

This chapter discusses the admissibility of confessions under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (the 1984 Act). It considers how, under s 76(2) of the 1984 Act, confessions may be excluded as a matter of law where obtained by oppression or in consequence of something said or done which was likely to render any such confession unreliable. It also considers the discretion to exclude confessions under s 78(1) of the 1984 Act; the effect of breaches of the Codes of Practice issued under the 1984 Act; the voir dire; statements made in the presence of the accused; and facts discovered in consequence of inadmissible confessions.

Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

16. Liability for Breach  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses the nature of breach of trust and how a trustee can be personally liable for such a breach. Trustees may seek to escape liability by relying on an exclusion clause in the trust instrument. Such clauses might exclude certain duties owed by the trustees or exempt the trustees from liability for a breach of trust. The liability of trustees for a breach of trust is joint and several: a beneficiary may sue only one trustee for all the loss suffered. That trustee may then seek contribution from others who are responsible for the same damage. In some cases, the court might excuse a breach of trust where trustees have acted honestly, reasonably, and where it is fair to do so.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

8. Terms of a Contract  

This chapter focuses on the terms or details of a contractual agreement, and considers the implications of what the parties intend to include in the agreement, what they did not mean to be included in the contract, and what significance different terms may have in the contract. It distinguishes between the terms of a contract and representations, and considers whether, when a term has been identified as such, it is a ‘condition’ or a ‘warranty’. The chapter then studies how terms are implied into the contract and how this affects terms that have been expressed. It concludes by examining how parties may seek to exclude or limit a legal responsibility through the incorporation of an exclusion clause.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

4. Confessions  

Chapter 4 examines the extent to which evidence of a confession by an accused person may be utilized by the prosecution at trial. It discusses confessions and miscarriages of justice; mandatory and discretionary exclusions; ‘tainting’ of subsequent confessions; warnings on account of ‘mental handicap’; withdrawal of the case from the jury; partly adverse statements; the use of confessions contravening section 76(2) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984; confessions admissible in evidence only against maker; use of a co-defendant’s confession by a defendant; the voir dire hearing; and reform of the law of confessions.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

11. Evidence obtained by illegal or unfair means  

This chapter discusses the circumstances in which relevant evidence can be excluded, as a matter of law or discretion, on the grounds that it was obtained illegally, improperly, or unfairly. The principles for exclusion of evidence are considered, and exclusion in both civil and criminal cases are covered. In respect of civil cases, discretionary exclusion under the civil procedure rules is examined, and in respect of criminal cases, discretionary exclusion at common law and under statute is discussed. The chapter also considers the circumstances in which criminal proceedings should be stayed as an abuse of the court’s process, where a trial would undermine public confidence in the criminal justice system and bring it into disrepute.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

12. Hearsay in criminal cases  

This chapter discusses the meaning of hearsay in criminal proceedings and the categories of hearsay admissible by statute in such proceedings. It considers the relationship between the hearsay provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (the 2003 Act) and Art 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights as it relates to hearsay; the definition of hearsay, and its admissibility under the 2003 Act, including admissibility under an inclusionary discretion (s 114(1)(d)); and safeguards including provisions relating to the capability and credibility of absent witnesses, the power to stop a case and the discretion to exclude. Also considered in this chapter are: expert reports; written statements under s 9 of the Criminal Justice Act 1967; and depositions of children and young persons under s 43 of the Children and Young Persons Act 1933.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

19. Evidence of character: evidence of bad character in criminal cases  

This chapter begins with an introduction to the statutory framework governing the admissibility of bad character evidence. It goes on to consider the statutory definition of ‘bad character’ and to discuss the admissibility of evidence of bad character in criminal cases under the Criminal Justice Act 2003, namely: the admissibility of the bad character of a person other than the defendant and the requirement of leave; the admissibility of evidence of the bad character of the defendant under various statutory ‘gateways’, including the gateway by which evidence may be admitted if it is relevant to an important matter in issue between the defendant and the prosecution; and safeguards including the discretion to exclude evidence of bad character and the judge’s power to stop a case where the evidence is contaminated. Procedural rules are also considered, as is the defendant’s right to challenge evidence of bad character.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

9. Defences to negligence  

This chapter considers three defences. It begins with a discussion of the principle of contributory negligence. It presents cases showing that the rules for establishing contributory negligence on the part of the claimant are not the same as the rules for establishing liability for negligence on the part of the defendant. It then turns to voluntary assumption of the risk or consent (sometimes referred to as volenti non fit injuria) which provides a complete defence to an action. The defence is based on the view that a person cannot sue if he consents to the risk of damage. Finally, the chapter considers the defence of illegality, which arises when the tortious action is in the context of the claimant’s and/or defendant’s participation in an unlawful act.

Chapter

Cover International Law

26. International Refugee and Migration Law  

Geoff Gilbert and Anna Magdalena Rüsch

This chapter explores the definition of refugee status in international law, its scope and limitations and consequent protection gaps for those forcibly displaced, including internally displaced persons (IDPs), who have crossed no international border. There is no equivalent definition for migrants, but like refugees, asylum-seekers, and IDPs, international human rights law provides a framework for their protection. The chapter explains the difference between refugee status and asylum, focusing on non-refoulement in international law. It discusses the rights that are guaranteed during displacement, particularly those pertaining to detention and humanitarian relief. Given that refugee status is intended to be temporary, the final section looks at cessation and durable solutions, either following voluntary return, through local integration, or resettlement in some third State.

Chapter

Cover The Politics of the Police

12. Conclusion: histories of the future  

Benjamin Bowling, Robert Reiner, and James Sheptycki

The concluding chapter pulls together the implications of the earlier chapters of this book for an assessment of where policing is heading, and what is to be done to achieve greater effectiveness, fairness, and justice. It seeks to answer eight specific questions: What is policing? Who does it? What do police do? What are police powers? What social functions do they achieve? How does policing impact on different groups? By whom are the police themselves policed? How can policing practices be understood? It considers technological, cultural, social, political, economic changes and their implications for crime, order, and policing. It also examines the multifaceted reorientation of police thinking, especially shifts in the theory and practice of policing in the 1990s that included the rhetoric of consumerism. The chapter considers the limits of police reform and the implications of neo-liberalism for the police before concluding with a call for policing based on the principles of social democracy.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law Directions

7. Misrepresentation  

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter is concerned with the territory just beyond the borders of the contract, where we find the representations which are not part of the contract but which influenced its creation and which, if false, are remedied by the law on misrepresentation. The discussions cover the key elements of the definition of misrepresentation; the differences between fraudulent, negligent and innocent misrepresentations; and the remedies of rescission and the various rights to damages. This also includes the bars on the right to rescind, the principles of assessment of damages and the controls on excluding liability for misrepresentation.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Armitage v Nurse [1998] Ch 241, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Armitage v Nurse [1998] Ch 241, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Sanders & Young's Criminal Justice

11. When things go wrong in the criminal justice process  

In this chapter, we identify and critically evaluate the kind of things that can go wrong in the criminal justice process and describe the institutional architecture used to regulate the actions and effects of criminal justice practitioners and to hold them to account. The focus of the chapter is on the organisational, legal and democratic regulatory and accountability mechanisms associated with the police, courts and CPS. Specifically the chapter covers: Police and Crime Commissioners; citizen- and volunteer-led forms of accountability/regulation; royal commissions, public inquiries and independent inquiries; police complaints processes and inspectorates; trial remedies and appeals; the Criminal Cases Review Commission; civil proceedings; inquests and Coronial Courts.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

6. Identification Evidence  

Chapter 6 first considers the three categories of factors which may contribute to the mistaken identification of the defendant as the perpetrator of the offence: witness factors, event factors, and post-event factors. It then turns to R v Turnbull in 1976, where the Court of Appeal laid down the famous ‘Turnbull guidelines’ on judicial warnings to the jury about visual identification evidence. This is followed by discussions of discretionary exclusion of identification evidence and the use of photographs and video recordings.

Chapter

Cover Lunney & Oliphant's Tort Law

6. Defences to Negligence  

Donal Nolan and Ken Oliphant

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant’s claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

6. Defences to Negligence  

This chapter examines the following defences to a claim in negligence: volenti non fit injuria; contributory negligence; exclusion of liability; and illegality. The defence of volenti non fit injuria reflects the common sense notion that ‘[o]ne who has invited or assented to an act being done towards him cannot, when he suffers from it, complain of it as a wrong’. Contributory negligence is a partial defence that operates not to defeat the claimant's claim entirely but rather to reduce the amount of damages the defendant must pay. A defendant may seek to exclude all potential liability to another person in advance of exposing himself to the risk of a possible claim. The defence of illegality denies recovery to certain claimants on the grounds that their claim is tainted by their own illegal conduct.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Armitage v Nurse [1998] Ch 241, Court of Appeal  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Armitage v Nurse [1998] Ch 241, Court of Appeal. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Competition Law of the EU and UK

12. The cartel offence  

This chapter discusses cartel offence, contained in Part 6 of the Enterprise Act 2002 (EA), and in particular section 188, which made it a criminal offence to engage in cartel activity implemented in the UK. It applies to horizontal price fixing, market sharing, bid rigging, and production limitation agreements. Individuals can be prosecuted and may face imprisonment and/or individual fines. In its original formulation, the cartel offence had limited success. In 2013, the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013 (ERRA) introduced three important modifications to section 188 of the EA: it removed the requirement that the conduct be ‘dishonest’; it added a section 188A with a list of exclusions, or circumstances under which engaging in a cartel would not be ‘criminal’ and it included, in new section 188B, possible defences.