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Chapter

Cover Employment Law

10. Introducing discrimination law  

This chapter introduces the field of discrimination law, explaining why it takes the form it does and summarizing the critical arguments often advanced concerning the whole body of anti-discrimination legislation. The scope of anti-discrimination law has widened very considerably over the past twenty years, principally as a result of EU law protecting people on grounds such as age, sexual orientation, religion, and fixed-term or part-time status. Different areas of discrimination law vary in respect of possible defences when an alleged act of unlawful discrimination has taken place. How far positive discrimination is lawful also varies. Some argue that anti-discrimination law may harm those it aims to protect by distorting the market and discouraging the hiring of under-represented groups. There is much debate about whether it is possible to establish a general principle to help define who exactly should be protected by discrimination law, in what ways, and on what basis.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers EU Law

9. Sex Discrimination and Equality Law  

The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions along with examiner’s tips, answer plans, and suggested answers about EU law on sex discrimination and equality. The questions have been divided into a general question on the inclusion of sex discrimination provision in the first place; problem questions on aspects of equal pay and equal treatment; an essay question on a specific development in this area of law, which considers the overlapping area of pay and pensions and a problem on pregnancy-related matters; and an essay question on the expansion of areas protected by equality legislation.

Chapter

Cover Constitutional and Administrative Law

3. Rule of law  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the meaning of the rule of law, one of the fundamental doctrines or principles of the UK constitution. The concept is by no means straightforward, and opinions vary as to the principles or values which underpin the doctrine. The chapter distinguishes between formal and substantive meanings of the rule of law. It discusses principles encompassed by the rule of law. These include that laws should be prospective, laws should be open and clear, and that there should be natural justice, access to the courts, and equality before the law. The chapter concludes with an assessment of the contemporary significance of the rule of law.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

4. Discrimination  

The protected characteristics

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on ss 4–12 Equality Act 2010. The Act protects people from discrimination in relation to nine protected characteristics: age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation. It also protects people from discrimination by association with someone who has one of the protected characteristics and from discrimination by perception (eg discrimination because of sexual orientation includes discrimination against those one perceives to be gay, even if they are not).

Book

Cover European Union Law

Steve Peers and Catherine Barnard

European Union Law draws together a range of perspectives to provide an introduction to this important subject. The volume offers a broad range of approaches to provide students with a solid foundation to the institutional and substantive law of the EU. Topics covered include the development of the EU, its political institutions, and constitutionalism in the EU. International law and the EU is examined, as well as the effects of EU law on national legal systems. There is a specific chapter on the effect of Brexit on both the EU and the UK. The volume also considers the free movement of goods, and free movement of natural persons, legal persons, and capital in the EU. Labour and equality law, EU health law, environmental law, consumer law, and criminal law are also considered in detail, as are immigration and asylum law.

Book

Cover European Union Law

Edited by Catherine Barnard and Steve Peers

European Union Law draws together a range of perspectives to provide an introduction to this important subject. The volume offers a broad range of approaches to provide students with a solid foundation to the institutional and substantive law of the EU. Topics covered include the development of the EU, its political institutions, and constitutionalism in the EU. International law and the EU are examined as well as the effects of EU law on national legal systems. There is a specific chapter on the effect of Brexit on both the EU and the UK. The volume also considers the free movement of goods, natural persons, legal persons, and capital in the EU. Labour and equality law, EU health law, environmental law, consumer law, and criminal law are also considered in detail, as are immigration and asylum law.

Chapter

Cover Business Law

22. Equality In Employment Relationships  

This chapter discusses the Equality Act (EA) 2010. There have been many changes adopted following the enactment of this legislation. The Act is relevant for businesses as it imposes obligations to provide a safe system of work, including regulating the activities of management, colleagues, and third parties. This is an area of law that will evolve over the forthcoming years, and whilst much of the previous case law is applicable to this new Act, new judgments will likely expand and clarify the extent of equality law. An employer who is not aware of the provisions of EA 2010 runs the risk of facing very expensive claims, poor industrial relations, and potential damage to his or her reputation as an employer.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

5. Discrimination at work, prohibited conduct, and enforcement  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on the provisions of the Equality Act 2010. Applicants for jobs must not be asked about their health or disability in the recruitment process. Prohibited conduct refers to direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, and victimisation. Segregation on racial grounds is also prohibited. In addition, there is no minimum period of employment needed before one can make a discrimination claim.

Chapter

Cover Civil Liberties & Human Rights

11. Freedom from Discrimination (Article 14)  

Course-focused and comprehensive, the Textbook on series provide an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. This chapter examines the law on discrimination. It discusses the influence of European law on English discrimination law; English law relating to discrimination; positive discrimination; and enforcement and remedies under the Equality Act 2010.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

25. Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU anti-discrimination law, which, over the past decade and a half, has expanded significantly to cover a wide range of grounds and contexts. In addition to requiring equal treatment for women and men, the Treaty provides legislative competence to combat discrimination on a range of grounds. The Charter of Fundamental Rights, which has a chapter devoted to equality, has been incorporated into the EU Treaties. Article 21 of the Charter prohibits discrimination on any ground. Articles 8 and 10 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contain horizontal clauses requiring the EU to promote equality between men and women, and to combat discrimination based on certain grounds, namely sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation in all of its policies and activities. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU discrimination law and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

25. Equal Treatment and Non-Discrimination  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter discusses EU anti-discrimination law, which, over the past decade and a half, has expanded significantly to cover a wide range of grounds and contexts. In addition to requiring equal treatment for women and men, the Treaty provides legislative competence to combat discrimination on a range of grounds. The Charter of Fundamental Rights, which has a chapter devoted to equality, has been incorporated into the EU Treaties. Article 21 of the Charter prohibits discrimination on any ground. Articles 8 and 10 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) contain horizontal clauses requiring the EU to promote equality between men and women, and to combat discrimination based on certain grounds, namely sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age, or sexual orientation in all of its policies and activities. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning EU discrimination law and the UK post-Brexit.

Book

Cover EU Law Directions

Nigel Foster

EU Law Directions explains the key topics and developments in this fast-paced and increasingly important subject area. Based on 35 years’ experience teaching and examining European Union (EU) law, this book provides a student-friendly text which is readable without compromising on academic quality. The text is easy to follow, with useful features throughout such as case summaries, key definitions, and diagrams. Cross-references and end-of-chapter summaries demonstrate how topics link together and enable students to quickly build up a comprehensive understanding of EU law. The text is clearly broken down into logical sections, guiding students through institutional, procedural, and substantive law from a European perspective. It also takes into account the fast-moving events in the UK generated by the result of the Brexit referendum and the consequent exit of the UK from the EU and entry into the transition period which ended 31 December 2020. A clear and uncomplicated writing style ensures students new to EU law quickly grasp the central elements of the subject. This book has been fully revised in this new edition to take account of new legislative and case law developments, in particular relating to the free movement of persons and equality law. This new edition includes a full consideration of the UK’s relationship with the EU, the 2016 referendum, and the process of negotiating withdrawal concluding with the UK withdrawal on 31 January 2020.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

20. Labour and equality law  

Mia Rönnmar

Labour law regulates the individual employment relationship and employment rights, as well as the labour market more generally, and the relations between the State, employers and employees, and their representatives—the social partners. Equality law is a central part of labour law, but also extends its reach beyond working life. Both the development and content of EU labour and equality law throughout the years—and still today—reflect a tension between the EU and national sovereignty, economic and social rights, and market and human rights discourses. Labour and equality law is regulated by a complex mix of Treaty provisions, fundamental rights, and general principles of EU law, secondary law, collective agreements at EU level, case law from the Court of Justice, and soft law measures. This chapter discusses a selection of key EU labour and equality law issues. These include restructuring of enterprises; information, consultation, and worker participation; fundamental Treaty freedoms and national collective labour law; flexible work and working conditions; the EU and national labour law in times of crisis; and gender equality, comprehensive equality, and protection against discrimination on other grounds.

Chapter

Cover European Union Law

19. Labour and equality law  

Mia Rönnmar

This chapter discusses a number of key EU labour and equality law issues. These include restructuring of enterprises; information, consultation, and worker participation; how national collective labour law is affected by the four freedoms; flexible work and working conditions; the EU and national labour law in times of economic crisis; and gender equality, comprehensive equality, and protection against discrimination on other grounds.

Book

Cover EU Law Directions

Nigel Foster

EU Law Directions explains the key topics and developments in this fast-paced and increasingly important subject area. Based on 35 years’ experience teaching and examining European Union (EU) law, this book provides a student-friendly text which is readable without compromising on academic quality. The text is easy to follow, with useful features throughout such as case summaries, key definitions, and diagrams. Cross-references and end-of-chapter summaries demonstrate how topics link together and enable students to quickly build up a comprehensive understanding of EU law. The text is clearly broken down into logical sections, guiding students through institutional, procedural, and substantive law from a European perspective. It also takes into account the fast-moving events in the UK generated by the result of the Brexit referendum and the consequent exit of the UK from the EU and entry into the transition period due to end 31 December 2020. A clear and uncomplicated writing style ensures students new to EU law quickly grasp the central elements of the subject. This book has been fully revised in this new edition to take account of new legislative and case law developments, in particular relating to the free movement of persons and equality law. This new edition includes a full consideration of the UK’s relationship with the EU, the 2016 referendum and the process of negotiating withdrawal concluding with the UK withdrawal on 31 January 2020.

Chapter

Cover International Human Rights Law

11. Equality and non-discrimination  

This chapter examines equality and non-discrimination in international human rights law. It discusses the provisions of human rights laws, conventions, and declarations, and emerging grounds of discrimination will also be considered. As human rights are focused on the individual, it is perhaps not surprising that there are many people who are disadvantaged or marginalized in the enjoyment of their rights and freedoms due to the intersecting of two or more grounds of discrimination. The chapter suggests that there is a link between the concepts of equality and that of non-discrimination, and that the rule of non-discrimination is basically the negative restatement of the principle of equality.

Chapter

Cover The Changing Constitution

1. The Rule of Law  

Jeffrey Jowell

Dicey believed that discretionary power offended the Rule of Law as it would inevitably lead to arbitrary decisions. His critics pointed out that in the modern state discretion is necessary to carry out a variety of welfare and regulatory tasks. The Rule of Law contains four central features which cohere and overlap: legality, certainty, equality and access to justice and rights. These are not only formal values but also substantive. The Rule of Law is a principle of institutional morality inherent in any constitutional democracy. In a country without a written constitution it constrains the way power is exercised. It is enforced and elaborated through judicial review but also serves as a critical focus for public debate. Although the Rule of Law is not the only requirement of a constitutional democracy, it is of great practical significance in promoting fair decisions, restraining the abuse of power, encouraging investment, and in furthering empowerment and respect for equal human dignity.

Book

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment
Selwyn’s Law of Employment is regarded as essential reading by law students and practising lawyers, and those studying employment law in a business or professional environment. This edition continues Norman Selwyn’s practical approach to the subject, providing a succinct account of all areas of employment law. Both individual and collective employment law issues are considered, alongside a broad range of UK and EU case law. New to this edition, the text provides coverage of the new IR35 legislation and the new immigration rules as well as an overview of the coronavirus legislation as it relates to employment, such as compulsory vaccination, the furlough scheme and self-isolation. There is also an up-to-date discussion of the gig economy employment status case law, and freedom of expression, and belief.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

14. Equal Pay Law  

This chapter examines the principle of equal pay for equal work enshrined in the Equality Act 2010 (EA). It first considers the stubbornness of the gender pay gap in the UK and the EU, as well as the justifications for intervention in the labour market via the auspices of equal pay laws. It goes on to discuss the legal machinery in the EA, which confers an entitlement on employees of one sex to the same remuneration as suitable employee comparators of the opposite sex. The focus then turns to the content of the ‘sex equality clause’—a term imposed into every employee’s contract of employment by virtue of section 66 of the EA. This is followed by a discussion of the material factor defence for employers in section 69 of the EA.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

15. Liability of Public Authorities  

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines the nature and operation of the liability of public authorities, with particular emphasis on the tensions between the equality principle, a concern that authorities ought to be specially protected, and a concern that authorities ought to be subject to wider and more onerous obligations. The chapter first considers the relationship of public authority liability with judicial review and goes on to discuss the law of torts, especially the tort of negligence and what circumstances courts ought to impose negligence liability on public authorities for harm caused through exercises of statutory discretion. It then explores negligence liability in relation to omissions, human rights, and misfeasance in public office. It also reviews damages under the Human Rights Act 1998, contracts, restitution, and state liability in European Union law.