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Chapter

Cover Employment Law

1. The rise of employment law  

This chapter defines some key terms and then focuses on the two questions that are most often debated when people consider the revolution in employment regulation that has occurred in recent decades: Why have we seen such a growth in the extent to which the employment relationship is regulated in the UK? What are the advantages and disadvantages of increased employment regulation for the UK’s economy and people? In answering these questions the chapter introduces some of the major themes which underpin the evaluative material in this text. It also considers attempts made by recent governments to lessen the burden of regulation on employers, most of which have been widely perceived as having had, at best, very limited effect. Finally, it considers the consequences and impact of how employment tribunal fees before they were abolished, and looks at the decline in membership of trade unions and its effect.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

1. Exam skills for success in employment law  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter gives students advice on skills for success in employment law exams. It includes tips on how to get the most out of an employment law course and how best to use the revision period. Students are also provided with helpful hints on what to do in the exam room to ensure that they have the best chance of success, as well as advice on the structure and approach to problem questions and essays.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

2. Sources of employment law and institutions  

This chapter discusses the sources of UK employment law and relevant institutions, and looks at court structure. The main source is statutes—Acts of Parliament, regulations and EU law. The common law is judge-made and has evolved over centuries as cases are brought to court and appealed up through the court hierarchy. The laws of contract, trust and tort all play a part in employment regulation. Most cases relating to common law matters are brought to the County Court or the High Court. Employment tribunal cases can be appealed to the Employment Appeals Tribunal (EAT) and then the Court of Appeal, the Supreme Court and, if concerning an EU matter, to the European Court of Justice. Other important institutions in the employment law include the Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS), the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

3. The Employment Relationship and the Contract of Employment  

This chapter analyses the various tests adopted by the courts and tribunals to distinguish between the contract of employment and the contract for services. It considers the history of employment, moving from a master and servant arrangement to the emergence of the ‘mutual’ or ‘reciprocal’ contract of employment. It considers the statutory concept of continuous employment, whereby an individual may be required under statute to establish a period of continuous employment on the basis of a contract of employment in order to avail him/herself of certain statutory employment protection rights. Finally, the chapter turns to the effect of an illegal contract of employment, whether it was illegal in its purpose or objective when it was formed, or expressly or implicitly prohibited by statute. There is also consideration of the illegal performance of a legal contract.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

8. Variation, breach, and termination of employment  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses variations of terms and conditions of employment. Theoretically, neither employer nor employee can unilaterally alter the terms and conditions of employment. A unilateral variation that is not accepted will constitute a breach and, if serious, could amount to a repudiation of the contract. A repudiation does not automatically terminate a contract of employment. In order to justify summary dismissal, the employee must be in breach of an important express or implied term of the contract.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

8. Statutory redundancy payments and consultation procedures  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about statutory redundancy payments and consultation procedures. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of statutory redundancy pay including the qualifying period to be eligible, the definition of redundancy, procedural fairness, case law on ‘work of a particular kind’, bumping, suitable alternative employment, and calculating statutory redundancy pay. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Card & James' Business Law

25. The contract of employment  

This chapter examines the issues concerning contracts of employment. It begins by looking at how employment law disputes are resolved, namely by discussing the role of employment tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal, and how they fit into the courts structure discussed in Chapter 2. The chapter than discusses the difference between employees and independent contractors, and looks at the status of several special classes of worker. An examination of the terms of the contract then takes place, including a discussion of express terms, and the terms that are implied that relate to the conduct of the employer and employee.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

7. Contractual employment rights  

This chapter introduces the basic principles of the law of contract as they apply to contracts of employment. It focuses on three issues in particular. First we look at how contracts are formed in the context of an employment relationship and at the conditions that need to be in place if a contract of employment is to be enforceable in a court. We then go on to discuss how employers can go about lawfully varying the terms of contracts by using flexibility clauses and other approaches. Finally we discuss the need to provide employees with written particulars of their employment soon after they start working in a new job.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law in Context

7. The Variation and Suspension of the Personal Employment Contract  

This chapter first examines the common law rules regulating the variation of the terms of the contract of employment. It focuses on the situation where the employer seeks to unilaterally modify the terms of the employment contract, for instance in light of modern pressures on management to demand greater labour flexibility in order to adapt to changing market conditions. The chapter then moves on to address the ability of the employer to suspend the contract of employment, for instance where the employer suffers a downturn in demand for its products or services, or where an employee may be subject to disciplinary proceedings. Finally, it considers the future trajectory of the common law content of the personal contract of employment.

Book

Cover Card & James' Business Law
Card & James’ Business Law provides analysis of the English legal system, contract law, the law of torts, company law, and employment law, with online chapters providing further discussion relating to the economic torts, corporate governance, the sale of goods, consumer credit, and the law relating to unfair and illegal commercial practices. All of this is discussed using relevant examples from the business environment, and the key legal cases to help develop a greater understanding of the interconnections between the law and the corporate setting. Part I of the book looks at the English legal system. Part II looks at the law of contract including the formation, terms, exclusion clauses, and remedies. Part III looks at the law of torts in detail. Part IV considers partnership and company law including business structures, the constituents of a company, shares, capital maintenance, shareholders remedies, and corporate rescue. Finally, Part V is about employment law.

Chapter

Cover Lunney & Oliphant's Tort Law

14. Vicarious Liability  

Donal Nolan and Ken Oliphant

The law of vicarious liability traditionally operates so as to impose liability on an employer for the tort of an employee, but several conditions must be satisfied. This chapter discusses the development of and justification for vicarious liability; the relationships that trigger vicarious liability, including the employment relationship and relationships ‘akin to employment’; and the requirement that the tort be committed in the course of employment for vicarious liability to arise. The chapter also considers the primary liability of an employer for the conduct of an employee or independent contractor, arising out of breach of a non-delegable duty of care.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law: Text and Materials

15. Vicarious Liability  

The law of vicarious liability traditionally operates so as to impose liability on an employer for the tort of an employee, but several conditions must be satisfied. This chapter discusses the development of and justification for vicarious liability; the employment relationship and relationships ‘akin to employment’; and the requirement that the tort be committed in the course of employment for vicarious liability to arise. The chapter also considers primary liability of an employer for the conduct of an employee or independent contractor, arising out of breach of a non-delegable duty of care.

Book

Cover Employment Law in Context
Employment Law in Context combines extracts from leading cases, articles, and books with commentary to provide a full critical understanding of employment law. As well as providing a grounding in individual labour law, this title offers detailed analysis of the social, economic, political, and historical context in which employment law operates, drawing attention to key and current areas of debate. An innovative running case study contextualizes employment law and demonstrates its practical applications by following the life-cycle of a company from incorporation, through expansion, to liquidation. Reflection points and further reading suggestions are included. The volume is divided into eight main Parts. The first Part provides an introduction to employment law. The next Part looks at the constitution of employment and personal work contracts. This is followed by Part III, which examines the content of the personal employment contract and the obligations imposed by the common law on employers and employees. The fourth Part is about statutory employment rights. The fifth Part covers equality law. Part VI looks at the common law and statutory regulation of dismissals. The Part that follows considers business reorganizations, consultation, and insolvency. Finally, Part VIII describes collective labour law.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

9. Equality law  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about equality law. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of equality law including the range of protected characteristics, direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment, victimisation, and the duty to make reasonable adjustments. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

13. Continuous Employment  

The statutory provisions for continuity of employment are contained in ss 210–219 of the Employment Rights Act 1996 and the Employment Protection (Continuity of Employment) Regulations 1996. Continuity of employment is a statutory concept generally used, first, to determine whether an employee has been employed for a particular length of time so as to qualify for a specific statutory right, and, second, to ascertain the employee’s length of employment for the purpose of obtaining certain financial benefits award and a redundancy payment. This chapter discusses provisions for counting and computing continuity (ERA, ss 210–219) 362)); preserving continuity (s 212); weeks which do not count towards continuity (ss 215–217); change of employer (s 218); and effect of the continuity rules.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

11. Continuity of employment and TUPE  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses continuous employment and the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE). An employee’s period of continuous employment begins on the day on which the employee starts work. Although continuity provisions normally apply to employment by one employer, there are situations where a transfer from one employer to another can preserve continuity of employment. One such situation is when there is a relevant transfer under TUPE. TUPE acts to ensure that an individual’s contract of employment is transferred in its entirety when the individual employee experiences a change of employer as a result of a transfer.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

8. Implied terms  

This chapter looks at the terms which are implied into contracts of employment. Implied terms are those that are deemed to be present by a court despite never having been explicitly agreed or even discussed by the employer or employee. The chapter begins by setting out the different types of implied term, differentiating these from other types of terms, before going on to explore the major implied terms and their significance. It focuses in particular on the duty to maintain a relationship of mutual trust and confidence as this is the area in which the most significant legal developments have occurred. It then considers situations in which implied terms conflict with express terms, before discussing procedural issues in breach of contract cases.

Book

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment
Selwyn’s Law of Employment is regarded as essential reading by law students and practising lawyers, and those studying employment law in a business or professional environment. This edition continues Norman Selwyn’s practical approach to the subject, providing a succinct account of all areas of employment law. Both individual and collective employment law issues are considered, alongside a broad range of UK and EU case law. New to this edition, the text provides coverage of the new IR35 legislation and the new immigration rules as well as an overview of the coronavirus legislation as it relates to employment, such as compulsory vaccination, the furlough scheme and self-isolation. There is also an up-to-date discussion of the gig economy employment status case law, and freedom of expression, and belief.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

6. Statutory employment protection and related contractual issues  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about statutory employment protection and related contractual issues. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of statutory employment protection including eligibility requirements for the right not to be unfairly dismissed, the right to written reasons for dismissal, statutory minimum notice periods, the right to be accompanied to disciplinary hearings, and the ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

8. Employment II: termination—wrongful dismissal, unfair dismissal, and redundancy  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the law on the termination of the employment contract. Employees have a statutory right not to be unfairly dismissed and the Employment Rights Act (ERA) 1996 identifies the criteria to be satisfied in order for the employee to gain protection. The common law protects against wrongful dismissal and provides tests and guidance for situations involving a breach of an employment contract. The chapter also considers redundancy situations. As this is governed by statute, it is necessary to appreciate the obligations imposed on the employer to adopt fair procedures.