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Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

7. Contribution Between Tortfeasors  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter considers cases involving several torts and severable persons who are liable. It describes ‘joint and several liability’, where several different torts may be contributing to the same harm and several persons are liable for what they have independently done, since in principle, everyone whose tortious conduct has contributed to the occurrence of harm is liable to be sued for the full amount of that harm, provided it is indivisible and not too remote. The chapter also discusses how a tortfeasor who is sued and wishes to claim contribution should bring any other supposed tortfeasor into the victim's suit. Likewise, the victim should sue every plausible tortfeasor, because if he brings a second action in respect of the same damage he risks being penalised in costs, and if he loses against one defendant and succeeds against another, he will get all his costs paid by the latter.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

25. Health and safety—The civil law  

This chapter looks at the civil law arm of health and safety law, which serves to provide compensation to employees or ex-employees who have suffered a detriment due to the unlawful actions of their employers. It focuses on personal injury claims brought to the County Court and High Court and the defences that are available for employers when faced with such litigation. The discussions cover claims due to negligence, breach of statutory duty, breach of contract and constructive dismissal, and stress-based claims.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

27. Freedom of association  

This chapter provides an introduction to collective employment law. Collective employment law concerns the regulation of the relationship between trade unions and employees in their capacity as trade union members. In order to be able to enforce these rights it is often necessary for a union to be listed by the Certification Officer, recognised by an employer or for its members to be acting ‘officially’ in the name of the union. Freedom of association is protected by laws which deter employers from dismissing employees or taking action short of dismissal against them for a trade union reason. The law gives equal protection to people who suffer the same detriments because they are not union members or because they have left a union.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to Tort Law

6. Vicarious Liability  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses the law on vicarious liability. In principle, a person is not liable in negligence unless he is in breach of a duty owed by him to the claimant. Quite often, however, a person who is not in breach of any duty incumbent on himself is nevertheless liable, and strictly liable, for torts committed by someone else. His liability is then said to be ‘vicarious’. The principal instance of vicarious liability is that of the employer for his employees. Persons may also be liable for those engaged in a joint enterprise with them, whether as fellow conspirator or partner in a firm.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

18. Employer’s Liability  

The liability of an employer to an employee has two aspects. There is liability to employees for harm suffered by them, and liability for harm caused by them in the course of their employment (vicarious liability, covered in chapter 19). Both represent forms of stricter liability. This chapter discusses the negligence law liability of employers, liabilities arising from statutory duties, and related aspects of social security law. It analyses the concept of the non-delegable duty in the employment context. It also discusses the implications for employer’s liability of reforms made to the law of breach of statutory duty in the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Chapter

Cover Tort Law

13. Employers’ liability  

This chapter discusses employers’ liability and, in particular, the non-delegable duty of care, which employers owe to their employees to ensure that they are reasonably safe when at work. The duty ensures that an employer remains responsible for key tasks even when their obligations have been delegated to another. The duty of care is typically said to have four components (building on Lord Wright’s statement in Wilsons & Clyde Coal Co Ltd [1938]) comprising the provision of: a competent workforce; adequate material and equipment; a safe system of working (including effective supervision); and a safe workplace.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

10. Introducing discrimination law  

This chapter introduces the field of discrimination law, explaining why it takes the form it does and summarizing the critical arguments often advanced concerning the whole body of anti-discrimination legislation. The scope of anti-discrimination law has widened very considerably over the past twenty years, principally as a result of EU law protecting people on grounds such as age, sexual orientation, religion, and fixed-term or part-time status. Different areas of discrimination law vary in respect of possible defences when an alleged act of unlawful discrimination has taken place. How far positive discrimination is lawful also varies. Some argue that anti-discrimination law may harm those it aims to protect by distorting the market and discouraging the hiring of under-represented groups. There is much debate about whether it is possible to establish a general principle to help define who exactly should be protected by discrimination law, in what ways, and on what basis.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

24. Health and safety—the criminal law  

This chapter introduces health and safety law in general terms, before describing and assessing those aspects which fall under the jurisdiction of the criminal courts. It discusses the structure of health and safety law; the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; other major health and safety regulations; enforcement of health and safety regulations; corporate manslaughter; and debates about criminal liability in health and safety law.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

23. TUPE  

The Transfer of Undertakings Protection of Employment (TUPE) Regulations aim to protect the interests of employees when the business they work for changes hands, or when their part of an operation is acquired or transferred to another business. They also apply in merger situations, when in-house processes are outsourced, when a contract to provide a service transfers from one provider to another, and when a public sector body such as a local authority ‘contracts out’ services, or indeed, brings formerly contracted out services back in house. They form a specialised corner of employment law, but one which can be very important for large numbers of people. This chapter discusses core TUPE rights, when TUPE applies, consultation requirements, contractual rights, unfair dismissal rights, sharing of information between transferors and transferees, and TUPE Regulations in respect of the takeover of insolvent businesses.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

22. Free Movement of Workers  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The free movement of workers is of central importance to the EU, in both economic and social terms. This is reflected in the legislation that fleshes out the basic rights contained in Article 45 and in the European Court of Justice’s consistently purposive interpretation of the Treaty Articles and legislation to achieve the EU’s objectives in this area. This chapter considers several central legal issues that arise in the context of the free movement of workers. These include the scope of Article 45, the meaning accorded to ‘worker’, the rights of intermediate categories such as ‘job-seeker’, the kinds of restrictions that states may justifiably impose on workers and their families; and the rights which family members enjoy under EU law. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning free movement of workers between the EU and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Markesinis & Deakin's Tort Law

19. Vicarious Liability and Non-Delegable Duties  

Vicarious liability is liability imposed on an employer to a third party for the tort of his employee committed in the course of employment. Vicarious liability is another instance of stricter liability in the sense that the employer who is not at fault is made responsible for the employee’s default. It thereby gives the injured party compensation from the person who is better able to pay and spread the cost of the injury, namely the employer. Anyone who wishes to hold an employer vicariously liable must prove: that the wrongdoer was his employee, or that the relationship between them was ‘akin’ to employment; that he committed a tort; and that he committed it in the course of his employment. This chapter discusses each of this in turn. It also considers contribution between employer and employee; liability for the torts of independent contractors; the expanding categories of non-delegable duties; and the changing contours of employer’s liability.

Chapter

Cover EU Law

22. Free Movement of Workers  

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing students with a stand-alone resource. The free movement of workers is of central importance to the EU, in both economic and social terms. This is reflected in the legislation that fleshes out the basic rights contained in Article 45 and in the European Court of Justice’s consistently purposive interpretation of the Treaty Articles and legislation to achieve the EU’s objectives in this area. This chapter considers several central legal issues that arise in the context of the free movement of workers. These include the scope of Article 45, the meaning accorded to ‘worker’, the rights of intermediate categories such as ‘job-seeker’, the kinds of restrictions that states may justifiably impose on workers and their families; and the rights which family members enjoy under EU law. The UK version contains a further section analysing issues concerning free movement of workers between the EU and the UK post-Brexit.

Chapter

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Employment Law

6. Statutory employment protection and related contractual issues  

The Q&A series offer the best preparation for tackling exam questions. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary, and illustrative diagrams and flowcharts. This chapter presents sample exam questions about statutory employment protection and related contractual issues. Through a mixture of problem questions and essays, students are guided through some of the key issues on the topic of statutory employment protection including eligibility requirements for the right not to be unfairly dismissed, the right to written reasons for dismissal, statutory minimum notice periods, the right to be accompanied to disciplinary hearings, and the ACAS Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Procedures. Students are also introduced to the current key debates in the area and provided with suggestions for additional reading for those who want to take things further.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

8. Employment II: termination—wrongful dismissal, unfair dismissal, and redundancy  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the law on the termination of the employment contract. Employees have a statutory right not to be unfairly dismissed and the Employment Rights Act (ERA) 1996 identifies the criteria to be satisfied in order for the employee to gain protection. The common law protects against wrongful dismissal and provides tests and guidance for situations involving a breach of an employment contract. The chapter also considers redundancy situations. As this is governed by statute, it is necessary to appreciate the obligations imposed on the employer to adopt fair procedures.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

1. Employment status  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the concept of employment status. Topics covered include the reasons for distinguishing employees from other types of worker; statutory definitions of employee and worker; and the courts’ and tribunals’ approach to identifying employees. The tests for employment status are stated, concentrating on mutuality of obligations and personal service. Discussion centres on zero hours contracts, agency workers, and the gig economy.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

2. Contracts of employment  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses employment contracts. Covenants potentially in restraint of trade are express written terms which may apply during the contract, but are usually expressed to apply after termination. They are a rare illustration of contractual terms, which must be in writing. The general purpose of these is to prevent a former employee competing against his former employers; for example, by taking commercially confidential information or influencing customers to give their business to the firm he has joined. The Supreme Court has recently ruled on the width of the doctrine of severance of such covenants. Topics covered include the provision of the written statement, a right which employees have enjoyed since 1963, but which was extended to workers in 2020; the sources of terms in employment contracts; duties of the employer; and duties of the employee. These duties or implied terms are divided into terms implied in law (ie inserted into every contract of employment) and terms implied in fact (ie inserted into a particular contract of employment). The latter are divided into terms implied in fact which work against the employers’ interests and terms which work against the employees’ interests. Examples of the former include the duty to pay wages; examples of the latter include the duty to obey reasonable orders.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law Concentrate

6. Parental rights  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the law on parental rights. Topics covered include maternity leave, parental leave, time off for dependants, the right to request flexible working, and the new right of parents to bereavement leave. The right to shared parental leave (SPL) is singled out for detailed treatment, partly because it is fairly new, and partly because, some would say, it exemplifies an old-fashioned approach to sex equality when caring for newborns. The option as to whether her partner can share in SPL is for the mother to decide; the mother may receive (by contract) enhanced maternity pay, but there is no enhanced SPL. The effect is to reinforce the mother’s staying at home because if she goes back to work, the family will lose most of the partner’s income because the rate of pay for SPL is low, around £151 a week. The latter point is arguably sex discrimination, and, during the currency of this book, the Employment Appeal Tribunal will decide this issue (at the time of writing employment tribunals are split).

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

16. Ownership of patents  

This chapter assesses the ownership of patents. Teams of researchers often work together towards a common goal. This means that there are sometimes disputes about who actually invented the product or process covered by a patent. Resolving these disputes is of significance because under patent law the owner possesses the right to grant licences to make use of the patented invention in exchange for a fee or royalties, and the right to sue for infringement. Before deciding who is entitled to the ownership of an invention it is first necessary to examine what is meant in law by the word ‘inventor’. Having examined the criteria used by the courts to identify an inventor, one must now consider the special statutory rules concerning employee–inventors. Once it has been decided who owns an invention, there is a scheme of compensation for employee–inventors.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

4. Unfair dismissal—reasons and remedies  

Employment tribunals must address three questions when faced with an unfair dismissal claim: Is the claimant entitled in law to pursue his/her claim? Was the main reason for the dismissal potentially lawful? Did the employer act reasonably in carrying out the dismissal? This chapter begins by distinguishing between three different types of dismissal claims that are brought to employment tribunals: unfair dismissal, wrongful dismissal and constructive dismissal. It goes on to discuss the first two of the three questions. It describes the four possible outcomes when a claimant wins an unfair dismissal case: reinstatement, re-engagement, compensation and a declaration that a dismissal was unfair. In practice, compensation is by far the most common outcome. The chapter then considers debates on remedies in unfair dismissal cases.