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Chapter

Cover Employment Law

9. Wrongful and constructive dismissal  

This chapter begins with an exploration of wrongful dismissal law, which has for many decades provided employees who are dismissed in breach of their contracts with the opportunity to apply to a court for damages. In recent decades wrongful dismissal has been superseded to an extent by unfair dismissal law, which provides a more satisfactory remedy for most who are unlawfully dismissed. But there are circumstances in which the longer-established law continues to play a role, and this is the focus of the first part of the chapter. It then moves on to look at constructive dismissal law, which appears to become more significant each year as precedents are set and more people become aware of the possibilities it offers when they resign from their jobs as a direct result of suffering unacceptable treatment from their employers.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Business Law

13. The Contract of Employment and its Termination  

This chapter discusses the contract of employment and its termination. It considers the difference between an employee, an employee shareholder, an independent contractor, and a worker, and the tests used to establish their status. It discusses the types of implied terms contained in a contract of employment. The chapter also considers termination of a contract of employment, examining the difference between unfair, constructive, and wrongful dismissal. It looks at claims for unfair dismissal, considering the potentially fair reasons for dismissal, the band of reasonable responses, the automatically unfair reasons for dismissal, and the remedies available where unfair dismissal has occurred. The chapter concludes with a discussion of redundancy.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

4. Unfair dismissal—reasons and remedies  

Employment tribunals must address three questions when faced with an unfair dismissal claim: Is the claimant entitled in law to pursue his/her claim? Was the main reason for the dismissal potentially lawful? Did the employer act reasonably in carrying out the dismissal? This chapter begins by distinguishing between three different types of dismissal claims that are brought to employment tribunals: unfair dismissal, wrongful dismissal and constructive dismissal. It goes on to discuss the first two of the three questions. It describes the four possible outcomes when a claimant wins an unfair dismissal case: reinstatement, re-engagement, compensation and a declaration that a dismissal was unfair. In practice, compensation is by far the most common outcome. The chapter then considers debates on remedies in unfair dismissal cases.

Chapter

Cover Employment Law

5. Unfair dismissal—Reasonableness  

This chapter continues the discussion begun in Chapter 4 by considering the third of the three questions employment tribunals must address when faced with an unfair dismissal claim: Did the employer act reasonably in carrying out the dismissal? If the answer is ‘yes’, then the dismissal is fair, if it is ‘no’, then it is unfair and the issue of an appropriate remedy is considered by the tribunal. The chapter explores this concept of ‘reasonableness’ in detail. It explains how it has evolved over the decades and why its interpretation by the courts remains highly controversial. In particular, it focuses on how the courts have determined what does and what does not constitute a fair dismissal on grounds of misconduct, poor performance and ill health.

Chapter

Cover Business Law Concentrate

8. Employment II: termination—wrongful dismissal, unfair dismissal, and redundancy  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter reviews the law on the termination of the employment contract. Employees have a statutory right not to be unfairly dismissed and the Employment Rights Act (ERA) 1996 identifies the criteria to be satisfied in order for the employee to gain protection. The common law protects against wrongful dismissal and provides tests and guidance for situations involving a breach of an employment contract. The chapter also considers redundancy situations. As this is governed by statute, it is necessary to appreciate the obligations imposed on the employer to adopt fair procedures.

Chapter

Cover Selwyn's Law of Employment

9. Transfer of Undertakings  

This chapter considers the transfer of undertakings. It looks at the background and at the legislation, including the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 and the Collective Redundancies and Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) (Amendment) Regulations 2014. It discusses what counts as a transfer of a business or undertaking, considering service provision changes and transfers within the public administration. Also covered are the mechanics and effects of the transfer, including statutory rights and the effect on the contract of employment; dismissal on transfers and ETO reasons (economic, organisational or technological reason); refusing a transfer; employee liability information; and remedy for failure to notify employee liability information. It also looks at the effect of transfers on collective agreements and insolvency rights.