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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

24. Expert or Neutral Determination  

This chapter studies expert or neutral determination. Expert determination differs from early neutral or expert evaluation because the parties will appoint an expert to make a decision or formal determination on the issues referred to the expert. The expert can only make a decision within the boundaries laid down by the parties. In this sense, expert determination is a determinative process, rather than a facilitative process (mediation) or an advisory evaluative process (neutral evaluation). Expert determination differs from evaluation because the expert is asked to do more than produce a non-binding evaluation, opinion, or recommendation in relation to the issues in dispute, but rather to determine those issues. The decision is usually final and binding on the parties, and it can only be challenged in court proceedings in very limited circumstances.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Alternative Dispute Resolution

22. Early Neutral Evaluation  

This chapter describes early neutral evaluation (ENE), which is a non-binding assessment and evaluation of the facts, evidence, and/or the legal merits of an issue in the case or of the case as a whole. It is usually undertaken by the parties jointly, although in some cases it can be undertaken at the request of one party only in relation to their own case. The parties will usually appoint a neutral third party to evaluate the facts, evidence, and law in relation to the issue or case and provide an opinion on the merits. This differs from mediation, which is essentially a facilitative process. ENE is an advisory and evaluative process. It can take place within the court system, in which case the evaluation is usually carried out by a judge. Ultimately, ENE assists the parties to negotiate a settlement by direct negotiations or in mediation.

Chapter

Cover English Legal System

16. Alternative dispute resolution  

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) describes any method of resolving legal disputes other than through litigation in the courts or tribunals. ADR includes arbitration, mediation, adjudication, conciliation, med-arb, and early neutral evaluation/expert determination. This chapter explains the differences between the various forms of ADR, why ADR exists, its many advantages (compared to litigation), and its disadvantages. The chapter examines case law dealing with the ‘cost consequences’ of a failure by one party to a legal dispute to engage in ADR when presented with the opportunity to do so. The chapter considers whether ADR should be made compulsory and the extent to which the parties to a dispute, having agreed to resolve their dispute through ADR, can be compelled to honour that agreement.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

Additional Chapter Aspects of Commercial ADR  

Although there is no formally agreed definition of alternative dispute resolution (ADR), it is generally accepted as including all methods of resolving disputes other than through formal litigation. The use of ADR has developed significantly over the past few decades and despite the use of the word ‘alternative’ it is now very much part of mainstream thinking in modern-day dispute resolution. The importance of ADR to civil actions was reinforced by the Civil Procedure Rules in 1998, which emphasized it as part of the overriding objective, encouraged at all stages of the dispute process, from pre-action to after litigation has commenced. This is reinforced by sanctions that a court can impose on a party which fails properly to embrace the process. The Review of Civil Litigation Costs carried out by Jackson LJ further promoted the importance and use of ADR. There are many different forms of ADR, both adjudicative and non-adjudicative. This chapter will focus on the use of mediation as a non-adjudicative form of ADR and the steps the courts take to require (rather than compel) the parties to attempt to resolve their disputes.

Book

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure
A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure guides the reader through the procedural requirements employed in the civil courts. The volume provides an overview of the key statutory provisions, rules, practice directions, and case law which govern the various stages of a civil litigation claim. Providing practical guidance, the text charts the progress of a typical civil litigation claim, from funding litigation, the importance of alternative dispute resolution processes, issuing and serving proceedings, case management, and through to trial, enforcement, and appeal. Relevant sample documentation is featured throughout and introduces the forms and documents which will be encountered in practice, while key points summaries featured at the end of chapters highlight the essential points covered. This edition has been revised to incorporate rule changes up to the Civil Procedure (Amendment) Rules 2022 and the 144th Update. Changes incorporated into the new edition include: • Replacement rules on acknowledging service • Replacement rules on default judgment • New track allocation rules for road traffic accident claims • Case law developments on Qualified One-Way Costs Shifting • New Supreme Court decision on limitation • Revised PD 51U on disclosure of documents in the Business and Property Courts • Case law developments on privilege • Recent developments on seeking permission to appeal • Measures to assist vulnerable parties and witnesses • Developments on search orders and case law on imaging orders • End of the Siskina rule in relation to interim injunctions and freezing orders • Broad Idea v Convoy Collatera and its impact on freezing injunctions