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Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

45. Obligation of Confidence  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter considers one requirement in a breach of confidence action: that the defendant was under a legal (as opposed merely to a moral) obligation of confidentiality. It first looks at the basic test for a confidence arising that is ‘knowledge’ or ‘notice’. More specifically, the chapter examines the duties that arise in different situations, such as where the parties are in a direct relationship, where there is an indirect relationship, and where no relationship exists.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

46. Breach and Defences  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter examines the defences available where a duty of confidence has been breached. It begins by considering the scope of the obligation that must be ascertained to determine whether the duty of confidence has been breached. It then discusses three factors for a breach of confidence to occur: derivation, the defendant’s state of mind, and whether the breach has caused damage. The chapter also tackles secondary liability for breach of confidence before concluding with an examination of the implementation of the Trade Secrets Directive.

Chapter

Cover Medical Law Concentrate

4. Confidentiality and access to medical records  

This chapter examines confidentiality as a fundamental aspect of doctor–patient relationships: its ethical basis and equitable, contractual, and tortious obligations. It then considers the law governing access to medical records and statute that necessitates fair and lawful processing of sensitive personal data and the EU General Data Protection Regulation aimed at harmonising data protection legislation. It discusses exceptions to the duty of confidentiality, including explicit and implied consent, prevention of harm to others, police investigation, public interests, and press freedom. The chapter considers confidentiality with respect to children; adults who lack capacity and deceased patients; remedies available for breach of confidence; access to electronic patient records; and issues raised by genetics-related information.