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Chapter

This chapter addresses the process by which directors are appointed and remunerated, the various board structures, and the importance of board diversity. All companies are required to appoint a director, with the Companies Act 2006 (CA 2006) providing that a private company must have at least one director, and a public company at least two directors. Every public company must also appoint a company secretary. Before a person is appointed as a director, that person and the company will usually negotiate to determine the new director's remuneration package. Remuneration practices tend to differ markedly depending on company size. The two most common board structures in the world are the unitary board and the two-tier board. Meanwhile, in recent years, board diversity has become a major governance topic. The focus to date has been on increasing gender diversity in the boardroom, but recent attention has also focused on ethnic diversity.

Chapter

Michael Rowe

This chapter, which examines the organisation and delivery of policing, begins considering the ‘crisis’ of policing and suggests that some current concerns have a lengthy pedigree of their own. It then explores the breadth of the police mandate and distinguishes the activities of ‘the police’ from broader aspects of social regulation that might be thought of more widely as ‘policing’. The chapter discusses: the history and development of the police in England and Wales; an organisational map of policing; police accountability and governance; diverse policing and the policing of diversity; and policing strategies.

Chapter

The legal traditions of the world contain large amounts of information relating to human conduct as well as a large amount of theory, or at least second-order information, about themselves and the relations which each of them have with other traditions. This chapter discusses the multiplicity of traditions, normativity in legal traditions, and sustaining diversity in law.

Chapter

This chapter describes and discusses the different types of judge, and their roles, within the English legal system. This includes the Lord Chancellor, Supreme Court Justices, Appeal Court judges, circuit judges, district judges, coroners, and lay magistrates. The qualifications for appointment are outlined and the system of judicial appointments is discussed, including the role of the Judicial Appointments Commission. The chapter includes a day in the life of a district judge to give some context to the every-day work of the judiciary. There is also comment supplied upon the issues of diversity of membership of the judiciary and the importance of independence of the judiciary.

Chapter

This chapter examines the ways in which racism and ethnic diversity influence the process and outcomes of criminal justice. The discussions include how minority ethnic groups are represented across the criminal justice process and the proportions they comprise at each stage of the process; minority ethnic people's experiences as victims, their patterns of offending, policing patterns, and rates of disproportionality; and the representation of minorities in the criminal justice professions. The conclusion examines present and future challenges for the criminal justice process in the UK.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter explains what the legal professions are, what they do, and how to qualify as a member of the professions. It examines the rules governing practice as a member of the professions and, in particular, the issue of ethical behaviour. There are three principal branches to the legal profession in England and Wales. The first consists of barristers, the second of solicitors, and the third of chartered legal executives. The routes to qualification vary for each of the branches, but broadly speaking all involve an academic stage and work-based training. When considering the current routes to qualification for each of the branches of the profession, the chapter also explores potential qualification reforms, in particular those proposed by the Solicitors’ Regulation Authority with the introduction of the Solicitors’ Qualifying Exam (SQE). Diversity within each branch of the profession is also explored in relation to gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic backgrounds.

Chapter

This chapter describes and discusses the different types of judge, and their roles, within the English legal system. An outline of the system of judicial appointments is given. There is also comment supplied upon the issues of diversity of membership of the judiciary and the importance of independence of the judiciary.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter explains what the legal professions are, what they do, and how to qualify as a member of the professions. It examines the rules governing practice as a member of the professions and, in particular, the issue of ethical behaviour. There are three principal branches to the legal profession in England and Wales. The first consists of barristers, the second of solicitors, and the third of chartered legal executives. The routes to qualification vary for each of the branches, but broadly speaking all involve an academic stage and work-based training. When considering the current routes to qualification for each of the branches of the profession, the chapter also explores potential qualification reforms, in particular those proposed by the Solicitors’ Regulation Authority with the introduction of the Solicitors’ Qualifying Exam (SQE). Diversity within each branch of the profession is also explored in relation to gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic backgrounds.

Chapter

This chapter, which focuses on the judiciary, discusses the structure of the judicial system, the role of the judiciary, and the characteristics of the judiciary.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter provides an introduction to the courts and tribunals judiciary. It discusses the judicial office, judicial appointments, judicial diversity, and judicial training. There are different levels of judges within the courts and tribunals, with the senior judiciary comprising the Lord Chief Justice and Heads of Division. The Lord Chief Justice is the Head of the Judiciary. The Head of the Tribunals is the Senior President of the Tribunals. There are also part-time members of the judiciary known either as district judges, recorders, or Deputy High Court Judges depending on which court they sit in. This chapter assesses the similarities and differences between the court judiciary and tribunal judiciary. The quasi-judicial role of magistrates is also considered in this chapter. Discussing them in this chapter allows for their role to be considered and contrasted with that of district judges (magistrates’ courts) who also sit within the magistrates’ court.

Chapter

This chapter examines the issue of diversity in the legal profession. It first explains the meaning of diversity and the reasons why it should be promoted. It reviews the current status of the profession in terms of diversity. It considers diversity rules in the Equality Act 2010, Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) Handbook, and the Bar Standards Board (BSB) Handbook. Barriers to diversity and steps to promote diversity are also discussed.

Chapter

This chapter, which focuses on the judiciary, discusses the structure of the judicial system, the role of the judiciary, and the characteristics of the judiciary.

Book

Liz Campbell, Andrew Ashworth, and Mike Redmayne

The Criminal Process continues to provides a reflective, contextualized consideration of doctrinal, practical, and normative issues in criminal processes and procedures. The text draws on arguments from the law, research, policy, and principle, to present an overview of this area of study. It focuses on England and Wales, with occasional comparative references. The book includes new coverage of contemporary issues, such as the disclosure of evidence in criminal trials and the treatment of victims, and on diversity and discrimination within the criminal justice process. Further reading suggestions and discussion questions are included at the end of each chapter.

Chapter

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter begins with an overview of families and family law in England and Wales today. It then discusses themes and issues in contemporary family law, covering rules versus discretion; women’s and men’s perspectives on family law; sex and gender identity; sexual orientation; cultural diversity; and state intervention versus private ordering, including the role of the family court and of non-court dispute resolution in family cases, and challenges facing the family justice system.

Chapter

This chapter begins with discussions of the role of the judiciary in the UK, its relationships with other institutions, and qualifications for being a judge. It then considers the issue of judicial independence and how independence can be retained while ensuring that judges are accountable. There is a mini case study on the controversies surrounding media criticism of the judges following the decisions in the Miller case. The chapter also considers impartiality; the appointment of judges; the need to improve diversity of the judiciary; and the use of judges to chair public inquiries.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter provides an introduction to the courts and tribunals judiciary. It discusses the judicial office, judicial appointments, judicial diversity and judicial training. There are different levels of judges within the courts and tribunals, with the senior judiciary comprising the Lord Chief Justice and Heads of Division. The Lord Chief Justice is the Head of the Judiciary. The Head of the Tribunals is the Senior President of the Tribunals. There are also part-time members of the judiciary known either as district judges, recorders, or Deputy High Court Judges depending on which court they sit in. This chapter assesses the similarities and differences between the court judiciary and tribunal judiciary. The quasi- judicial role of magistrates is also considered in this chapter. Discussing them in this chapter allows for their role to be considered and contrasted with that of district judges (magistrates’ courts) who also sit within the magistrates’ court.

Chapter

This chapter argues that the conservation of marine living resources presents complex problems of regulation and management. The oceans represent the least understood ecosystem on this earth and this makes the conservation of marine life and resources, and the regulation of such, very difficult and complicated. The chapter gives an overview of the law as it stands. International law on conservation and sustainable use of marine living resources has developed very slowly thus far. Effective regimes for conservation of marine living resources have to address not only sustainable use of targeted stocks, but also incidental catch of other species, conservation of biological diversity, and protection of the marine ecosystems which provide the main habitat for fish stocks and other species. The chapter concludes that developing a legal regime that provides for sustainable use and conservation of the ocean’s living resources and biological diversity within the framework of the general law of the sea will continue to remain problematic.

Chapter

Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed. This chapter examines the notion of judicial independence. It discusses the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and its provisions reforming the office of the Lord Chancellor, establishing a new Supreme Court, and restructuring judicial appointments. Judicial diversity and discipline, along with further change to the judicial appointments process, are also considered. The chapter also considers the accountability of the judiciary to Parliament and the public, and the relationship between judicial independence and parliamentary privilege.

Chapter

Scott Slorach, Judith Embley, Peter Goodchild, and Catherine Shephard

This chapter first discusses the business aspect of law firms. Law firms have the same financial motivations and pressures as any other business. They need money (investment) to set up, and then to survive and grow. Law firms need to make a profit, attract clients, and stay ahead of other law firms. They operate within the legal market, producing a product-legal services-the ‘consumers’ of which are the clients. The chapter considers who those clients are, and why they chose a particular firm.