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Chapter

Extracts have been chosen from a wide range of historical and contemporary cases to illustrate the reasoning processes of the courts and to show how legal principles are developed. This chapter examines the rationale for giving the task of resolving disputes to statutory tribunals rather than courts. It also describes the new structure and organization for most tribunals and how they conduct dispute resolution adjudication. This technique of redress is considered alongside some methods of alternative dispute resolution. Their place in a staged approach, proportionate dispute resolution, is outlined and the possible benefit of conceiving administrative justice as a system with a focus on users is raised.

Chapter

This chapter examines the rationale for giving the task of resolving disputes to statutory tribunals rather than courts. It also describes the structure and organization for most tribunals and how they conduct dispute resolution adjudication. The hearing technique of redress is considered alongside administrative review, particularly the use of mandatory reconsideration in social security to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of dispute resolution. Their place in a staged approach, proportionate dispute resolution, is outlined and the possible benefit of conceiving administrative justice as a system with a focus on users is raised as well as some of the issues raised for users by the adoption of digitalization. An outline is given of the oversight activities conducted by the non-statutory Administrative Justice Council.

Chapter

This chapter first considers the project management approach to resolving civil disputes. Such an approach involves following a single overall plan from the first consideration of the legal dispute up to trial. However, the fact that most cases will not in fact reach trial, and that reasonable use of alternative dispute resolution must now be made at all stages, means that any plan must be sufficiently flexible to include review, and that review needs to include options as to process. The chapter then turns to the process of case evaluation, where lawyers value what a case is worth, assess the chances of winning a case, and conduct a cost-benefit analysis. Also discussed are the importance of proportionality in the conduct of litigation and managing and reducing the risk of losing a case.

Chapter

This chapter examines online alternative dispute resolution (ADR) options and online dispute resolution (ODR) options. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) in relation to all forms of dispute resolution is a major area of current development. In saving time and money in resolving disputes, ICT has much to offer, especially in relation to lower-value cases, and this is seen in the growing use of online portals and software-based support for dispute resolution. Indeed, software is already used successfully to mimic some negotiation and mediation processes, and this is likely to develop further. ODR comprises systems designed to work online that do not necessarily fit within existing ADR definitions. International and cross-border ODR is now being developed, especially to support e-commerce and deal with lower-value disputes.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), which are ways that a dispute can be settled outside of the court process. The chapters considers the growth of ADR and how the courts now require litigants to consider ADR before commencing legal action. The courts have wide powers to encourage ADR and this chapter considers these powers and why the courts try to encourage ADR. The key forms of ADR are then presented, together with an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter considers alternative dispute resolutions (ADR), which are ways that a dispute can be settled outside of the court process. The chapters considers the growth of ADR and how the courts now require litigants to consider ADR before commencing legal action. The courts have wide powers to encourage ADR and this chapter considers these powers and why the courts try to encourage ADR. The key forms of ADR are then presented, together with an analysis of their strengths and weaknesses.

Chapter

This chapter considers the various circumstances in which a buyer may become the owner of the goods, notwithstanding that the seller is neither the owner of them, nor sold them with the owner’s consent. In the chapter, disputes concern not the seller but the owner of the goods and the buyer. The chapter presents a case that provides an example of the sort of problems which can arise in such disputes. A common theme in these types of cases is dishonesty, whereby the court will have to decide which of two innocent parties should suffer due to the dishonesty of another. This can arise in many different situations, such as where an innocent buyer buys goods from a seller who turns out to have stolen them or where a person obtains goods on hire purchase and dishonestly sells them before they have been paid for.

Chapter

This introductory chapter provides a background on alternative dispute resolution (ADR), which refers to the full range of alternatives to litigation that might be available to a lawyer and client for resolving a civil dispute. In 1998, ADR was formally acknowledged by the Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) as being potentially relevant to all civil actions. Indeed, there is strong government support for the use of ADR in providing cost-effective options for civil dispute resolution. Over the last few decades there has been fast and increasing growth in the use and variety of forms of ADR. ADR options offer many potential advantages in terms of saving time and costs, providing confidentiality, and increasing client control. However, ADR also has some potential disadvantages, especially if it is not used appropriately, and some of the strategic opportunities available in litigation may be lost.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the issue of funding alternative dispute resolution (ADR) procedures. Costs are a major motivation for undertaking ADR, but the costs position can be quite complex. Indeed, the separate elements of costs must all be considered. It is government policy to make more use of ADR, including online ADR, for lower-value cases so that dispute resolution is cost effective. Although a process like arbitration can be expensive, most ADR processes are relatively inexpensive, and information on costs is quite easily available from ADR providers. Ultimately, it is important for the lawyer to make an overall analysis of the financial position and risks to assist the client in taking an informed decision about litigation and ADR options. Costs may be considered as part of a negotiated or mediated settlement.

Chapter

In recent years alternative dispute resolution (ADR) has evolved from being a fallback in relation to litigation into an important alternative that may be the preferred option in some cases. This chapter outlines the interface between litigation and ADR, and puts litigation into the context of settlement options. ADR is only a complete alternative to litigation where a full adjudicative option such as arbitration or expert determination is used. In most disputes it is more likely that a case will move between litigation and ADR processes, or be subject to both at the same time where an offer has been made and remains open, but the litigation process continues. The chapter discusses the main types of ADR and their fit with litigation; framing an attempt to settle; drawing up terms of settlement; and making Part 36 offers, especially when costs are a major concern in litigation.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the procedure for financial orders, which includes how to make an application for financial orders, the first appointment, financial dispute resolution hearing, and the final hearing. It covers the drafting required during financial proceedings such as Form E, statement of issues, the chronology, and the questionnaire. It covers funding options available to clients seeking financial orders, the protection of assets forming part of proceedings for financial orders, the preaction protocol, and the role of consent orders in proceedings for financial orders. It also explains costs orders in relation to financial proceedings, setting aside a financial order and appeals.

Chapter

This chapter first discusses the methods by which a family lawyer may resolve family law disputes, including alternative dispute resolution (ADR). It then reviews the various forms of negotiation that a family lawyer may undertake. These include settlement between clients, negotiation through correspondence, meeting between counsel, and at-court negotiation. Next, the chapter discusses mediation and collaborative law as different forms of ADR used in family law. It outlines MIAMs (mediation information and assessment meetings) and their importance prior to issuing proceedings. It also discusses the various steps of collaborative law. It also briefly considers a recent development in family ADR: arbitration.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the procedure for financial orders, which includes how to make an application for financial orders, the first appointment, financial dispute resolution hearing, and the final hearing. It covers the drafting required during financial proceedings such as Form E, statement of issues, the chronology, and the questionnaire. It covers funding options available to clients seeking financial orders, the protection of assets forming part of proceedings for financial orders, the pre-action protocol, and the role of consent orders in proceedings for financial orders. It also explains costs orders in relation to financial proceedings, setting aside a financial order and appeals.

Chapter

This chapter first discusses the methods by which a family lawyer may resolve family law disputes, including alternative dispute resolution (ADR). It then reviews the various forms of negotiation that a family lawyer may undertake. These include settlement between clients, negotiation through correspondence, meeting between counsel, and at-court negotiation. Next, the chapter discusses mediation and collaborative law as different forms of ADR used in family law. It outlines MIAMs (mediation information and assessment meetings) and their importance prior to issuing proceedings. It also discusses the various steps of collaborative law. It also briefly considers a recent development in family ADR: arbitration.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. This chapter discusses the civil justice system. Civil justice is concerned with the private dispute between individuals in the absence of the state. It seeks to solve disputes before they have had a chance to enter the legal structure, through the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR). Civil justice follows a similar pattern to its criminal counterpart; however, some of the procedural rules—specifically those relating to evidence—appear to be much more relaxed than in the criminal justice system. During the process of civil justice, a number of issues may arise which would bring the procedure to an end. These issues include ADR, through which parties may decide to settle the case at any point; default judgment, wherein judgment may be entered against a defendant at any point in the proceedings; and offers to settle, known as ‘Part 36 Offers’, in which an individual makes an offer to another without prejudice.

Chapter

This chapter evaluates international mediation. Mediation is particularly effective as an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) process for resolving international disputes because it enables linguistic and cultural differences to be managed and respected to a greater extent than is possible in court proceedings. Moreover, it avoids complex arguments about which court has jurisdiction to determine the dispute and which system of law applies to the dispute. The chapter then looks at the EU Directive on mediation in civil and commercial matters, which sets minimum standards for mediation in EU countries. The United Kingdom has implemented the Directive by adding to the suspension of the operation of the limitation period while the parties are attempting mediation in a cross-border dispute, and providing for mediation settlement agreements in such disputes to be made orders of the court for ease of enforcement by enabling parties to apply for a Mediation Settlement Enforcement Order (MSEO).

Chapter

This chapter discusses legal negotiating skills. It covers the characteristics of effective negotiators; negotiating styles and strategies; common negotiating mistakes; and negotiation and alternative dispute resolution.

Chapter

Annika Newnham

This chapter looks at the law used to resolve disputes about where children should live, who they should have contact with, and other aspects of parental responsibility. The majority of such disputes are between two parents, but they can also involve grandparents, other relatives, or even people like friends and neighbours. The Children Act 1989 is the main piece of legislation for the regulation of disputes between parents. This Act was an ambitious and largely successful attempt to modernise, simplify, and improve the law. As part of this reform, the old orders of custody and access were scrapped, and the Act introduced parental responsibility to regulate parents' legal status, and a set of orders which were designed to only affect practical arrangement. The chapter concludes with a brief outline of the High Court's inherent jurisdiction.

Chapter

The International Court of Justice (ICJ), which is defined in the UN Charter as the ‘principal judicial organ’ of the United Nations, is a standing mechanism for the peaceful settlement of disputes between States. It may also give advisory opinions on the law, at the request of the Security Council and General Assembly, or of other UN organs and specialized agencies that are so authorized by the General Assembly. No dispute can be the subject of a decision of the Court unless the States parties to it have consented to the Court’s jurisdiction over that specific dispute. This chapter discusses the history, structure, and composition of the Court, the ways in which jurisdiction is conferred upon it, its procedure, and the nature and effect of decisions (judgments and advisory opinions) of the ICJ.

Chapter

Christopher Staker

This chapter focuses on the principles of international law that govern the right of States to apply their laws to conduct and events occurring within or outside their own territories; the resolution of disputes arising from overlapping jurisdictional claims; and the problems of enforcing national laws. The discussions cover the meaning of ‘jurisdiction’; the significance of the principles of jurisdiction; doctrinal analysis of jurisdiction; the territorial principle; the national principle; the protective principle; the universal principle; treaty-based extensions of jurisdiction; controversial bases of prescriptive jurisdiction; types of jurisdiction; limitations upon jurisdiction; inadequacies of the traditional approach; and the fundamental principle governing enforcement jurisdiction.