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Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Pearce & Stevens' Trusts and Equitable Obligations

27. Discretionary trusts  

This chapter considers the key features of a discretionary trust. Unlike a fixed trust, which gives defined shares to the beneficiaries, a discretionary trust gives the trustees a discretion as to how to allocate the beneficial interests. They are mechanisms by which an owner of property can grant to others the power to allocate a fund among a defined class or group. As in a power of appointment, the allocator has complete discretion as to how the fund should be allocated, either, or both, in terms of the persons who should receive shares of the fund and the size of the shares they should receive. However, unlike mere powers of appointment, the allocator is under a mandatory duty to make allocations in accordance with the terms of the trust. The court will intervene to ensure that this duty is discharged.

Chapter

Cover The Principles of Equity & Trusts

2. The Characteristics of Equity  

This chapter analyses the essential characteristics of Equity. It identifies fourteen maxims that are useful and relevant today as guidelines for the operation of the equitable jurisdiction. The most important of the maxims are examined in some detail, namely that Equity is discretionary and is triggered by unconscionability. The meaning of discretion and the contemporary relevance of conscience and unconscionability are examined. Other maxims include that Equity will treat as done that which ought to be done and Equity responds to cynical conduct. This chapter explains the principles underlying these maxims and suggests that they are often subject to exceptions and sometimes it may even be necessary to redefine them to ensure that they are fit for purpose today.

Chapter

Cover Family Law

1. Family Life and the Law  

Ruth Lamont

This chapter explores the nature of family life and the role of the law in family relationships to identify the particular challenges facing family lawyers. In particular, it considers how the law interacts with family life, how family relationships are identified in law, and what role the law plays in regulating family behaviour. The diversity and personalised experience of ‘family’ means that the role of the law in these processes is complex. There are two central issues facing family lawyers. First, the identification of a relationship as being one of ‘family’ for the purposes of the law is an important label, and may give rise to specific rights and obligations, even if the particular relationship bears no significance for the individual. Secondly, identifying the nature of the rights and obligations arising from a family relationship is central to determining the significance of the relationship.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd (No 1) [1975] AC 396, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd (No 1) [1975] AC 396, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd (No 1) [1975] AC 396, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd (No 1) [1975] AC 396, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Murphy on Evidence

3. The judicial function in the law of evidence  

This chapter discusses the different functions in a court and how the court is composed of a tribunal of law and a tribunal of fact. In a jury trial, the judge decides matters of law and is the tribunal of law, while the jury is the ‘fact-finder’, the tribunal of fact. In a non-jury trial, the judge or magistrates perform both functions. This chapter discusses the functions of the judge in legal issues concerning evidence and, in particular, when a case is withdrawn from the jury because there is ‘no case’; judicial discretion; and admissibility of evidence illegally or unfairly obtained.

Chapter

Cover The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

37. Sentencing  

Andrew Ashworth and Julian V. Roberts

Sentencing represents the apex of the criminal process and is the most public stage of the criminal justice system. Controversial sentences attract widespread media coverage, intense public interest, and much public and political criticism. This chapter explores sentencing in the United Kingdom, and draws some conclusions with relevance to other common law jurisdictions. Sentencing has changed greatly in recent years, notably through the introduction of sentencing guidelines in England and Wales, and more recently, Scotland. However, there are still doubts about the fairness and consistency of sentencing practice, not least in the use of imprisonment. Among the key issues to be examined in this chapter are the tendency towards net-widening, the effects of race and gender, the impact of pleading guilty, the use of indeterminate sentences, the rise of mandatory sentences, and the role of the victim in the sentencing process. The chapter begins by outlining the methods by which cases come before the courts for sentencing. It then summarizes the specific sentences available to courts and examines current sentencing patterns, before turning to a more detailed exploration of sentencing guidelines, and of the key issues identified above. The chapter addresses two critical questions: What is sentencing (namely who exerts the power to punish)? Does sentencing in the UK measure up to appropriate standards of fairness and consistency?

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

7. Abuse of Discretion I  

Mark Elliott and Jason Varuhas

This chapter examines principles of administrative law which seek to prevent abuse of discretion. It first considers the notion that there is no such thing as an unfettered discretion before discussing two key principles that encourage a mode of administration which is faithful to the legislative scheme set out by Parliament: those which require decision-makers to act only on the basis of factors which are legally relevant, and those which dictate that statutory powers may be used only for the purposes for which they were created. It also explores the propriety of purpose doctrine and the relevancy doctrine, citing a number of relevant cases such as Padfield v. Minister of Agrictulture, Fisheries and Food [1968] AC 997.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

15. Confessions  

This chapter discusses the admissibility of confessions under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (the 1984 Act). It considers how, under s 76(2) of the 1984 Act, confessions may be excluded as a matter of law where obtained by oppression or in consequence of something said or done which was likely to render any such confession unreliable. It also considers the discretion to exclude confessions under s 78(1) of the 1984 Act; the effect of breaches of the Codes of Practice issued under the 1984 Act; the voir dire; statements made in the presence of the accused; and facts discovered in consequence of inadmissible confessions.

Chapter

Cover Ashworth's Principles of Criminal Law

1. Criminal Law Process  

This chapter discusses the process of criminal law. The focus is on the importance of the exercise of official discretion, on the criminal law in action, and on the role of bureaucracy in criminal law. There is also an outline of sentencing powers. Patterns of decision-making by criminal justice officials are one of four key pillars of criminal law and justice, along with criminal law principles, rules, and standards. We will see how these patterns are structured by crime-management and bureaucratic–administrative techniques designed to reduce the number of contested trials and issues, and hence take pressure off the criminal justice system as a whole.

Chapter

Cover Administrative Law

7. Discretion and deference  

This chapter discusses how judges can defer in appropriate ways to administrative authorities on some issues, while still opposing abuses of power. The chapter explains why the courts defer massively to administrative authorities on some issues involving foreign affairs and national security, public expenditure, planning, and legal and political processes. The mere fact that the law has allocated the power to an administrative body gives rise to a presumption that a court should not interfere unless there is a ground for review other than that the court would have reached a decision. The extent to which a court ought to defer is determined by the three reasons for allocating power to an administrative body: the body’s expertise, its political responsibility, and/or its decision-making processes.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover An Introduction to the Law of Trusts

9. Dispositive Discretions  

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter considers the questions that arise when trustees are given a dispositive discretion, i.e. the power to decide whom to pay, how much, and when. It first identifies five of the most important types of dispositive discretion: discretionary trusts; powers of appointment; powers of accumulation; powers of maintenance; and powers of advancement. It then turns to the duties and certainty requirements in trusts involving dispositive discretions. There are two main ones. The first is remaining within the terms of the disposition as laid down by the settlor (above all, paying only the right people). The other is handling the exercise of the discretion in a proper way. The chapter also discusses the proper bases for a decision and the depth of information with which trustees are required to equip themselves before making their decision.

Book

Cover Evidence Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Evidence Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. Written by experts, it covers all the key topics so you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you get the most out of your revision. After an introduction, the book covers principles and key concepts; burden of proof; confessions and the defendant’s silence; improperly obtained evidence, other than confessions; character evidence; hearsay evidence; competence and compellability, special measures; identification evidence and questioning at trial; opinion evidence; public interest immunity; and privilege.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Co-operative Insurance Society Ltd v Argyll Stores (Holdings) Ltd [1998] AC 1, House of Lords. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

11. Evidence obtained by illegal or unfair means  

This chapter discusses the circumstances in which relevant evidence can be excluded, as a matter of law or discretion, on the grounds that it was obtained illegally, improperly, or unfairly. The principles for exclusion of evidence are considered, and exclusion in both civil and criminal cases are covered. In respect of civil cases, discretionary exclusion under the civil procedure rules is examined, and in respect of criminal cases, discretionary exclusion at common law and under statute is discussed. The chapter also considers the circumstances in which criminal proceedings should be stayed as an abuse of the court’s process, where a trial would undermine public confidence in the criminal justice system and bring it into disrepute.

Chapter

Cover Equity & Trusts

10. Beneficiaries  

Paul S Davies and Graham Virgo

All books in this flagship series contain carefully selected substantial extracts from key cases, legislation, and academic debate, providing able students with a stand-alone resource. This chapter focuses on the beneficiary of a trust, and how this beneficiary possesses a variety of equitable rights arising from the trust, the nature of which will depend on the type of trust that has been created. Beneficiaries enjoy certain rights but do not have a right to inspect trust documents; however, disclosure of such documents can be ordered through the exercise of judicial discretion. In the case of a fixed trust, beneficiaries possess proprietary rights in the trust property and also a variety of personal rights. On the other hand, objects of a discretionary trust do not have any proprietary rights to trust property but have a variety of personal rights. To terminate the trust, its adult beneficiaries can unanimously agree to terminate it, but only if between them they are absolutely entitled to the beneficial interest.

Chapter

Cover Public Law

12. Judicial review: illegality  

This chapter considers ‘illegality’ as a ground of judicial review. Illegality is one of the three main grounds of judicial review as outlined by Lord Diplock in Council of Civil Service Unions & Others v Minister for the Civil Service. Broadly, the aim of this ground of judicial review is to ensure that public authorities act within the scope of their powers. This means that illegality is a wide ground of judicial review and is best considered as an umbrella term for a range of different ways in which a decision by a public authority can be challenged. A decision can be challenged under this ground of judicial review on the basis that the public authority lacks the power to make the decision in the first place, or if it does have the power, then the power has been exercised incorrectly.