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Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

19. Evidence and Disclosure  

Collecting and analysing evidence is often one of the most expensive elements of litigation. The approach to dealing with disclosure of evidence has been modified as part of the reforms introduced following the review carried out by Lord Justice Sir Rupert Jackson. The norm of standard disclosure has been replaced by options for the level of disclosure designed to ensure that disclosure is proportionate, which presents opportunities for saving costs and opens up some tactical considerations as regards the level of disclosure to seek and to offer. This chapter focuses on general principles and approaches that are most likely to be effective in preparing a case. It discusses the key rules of admissibility; questions of weight and reliability on the evidence presented; identifying what needs to be proved in a case; types of evidence; collecting evidence; disclosure of evidence; electronic disclosure of evidence; and reviewing and advising on evidence.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

45. Norwich Pharmacal and Related Disclosure Orders  

This chapter considers a number of other special forms of disclosure orders, the best known of which is the Norwich Pharmacal order. Norwich Pharmacal orders are primarily used for finding the identity of an unknown potential defendant. They can only be sought against a person who facilitated and got ‘mixed up’ in the wrongdoing. Norwich Pharmacal orders therefore cannot be made against ‘mere witnesses’. Pre-action disclosure orders bring forward the time when disclosure of documents takes place to the period before a claim is issued. Disclosure against non-parties enables the court to order a witness to produce documents in advance of the trial, thus avoiding adjournments when documents are produced at the last minute at trial.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

14. Hearsay admissible at common law  

This chapter considers the following categories of hearsay: statements in public documents, works of reference, evidence of birth, age, and death, evidence of reputation, statements forming part of the res gestae, and statements which are admissions made by an agent of a defendant. All of these categories were established at common law as exceptions to the rule against hearsay, and all of them have been preserved by statute. The categories relating to age and res gestae have been preserved in criminal but not civil proceedings. All of the other categories have been preserved in both criminal and civil proceedings.

Chapter

Cover The Modern Law of Evidence

20. Experts and opinion evidence  

This chapter discusses the law on experts and opinion evidence. As a general rule, opinion evidence is inadmissible: a witness may only speak of facts that he personally perceived, not of inferences drawn from those facts. However, there are two exceptions to this general rule: (i) an appropriately qualified expert may state his opinion on a matter calling for the expertise that he possesses; and (ii) a non-expert witness may state his opinion on a matter not calling for any particular expertise as a way of conveying the facts that he personally perceived. Experts may also give evidence of fact based on their expertise. The chapter covers the duties of experts and the rules which apply where parties propose to call expert evidence.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

31. Disclosure  

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) require the parties to give advance notice to their opponents of all the material documentation in their control. This is done in two stages. At the first stage the parties send each other lists of documents, a process called ‘disclosure’. The second stage is ‘inspection’, which is the process by which the other side can request copies of documents appearing in the list of documents, typically with photocopies being provided by the disclosing party. This chapter discusses these processes. It covers lawyers’ and clients’ responsibilities; the stage when disclosure takes place; disclosure orders; standard disclosure; menu option disclosure; duty to search; list of documents; privilege; inspection; orders in support of disclosure; documents referred to in statements of case, etc.; admission of authenticity; and collateral use.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Cross & Tapper on Evidence

X. Public policy  

This chapter argues that relevant evidence must be excluded on the ground of public policy on certain conditions. It explores two of these conditions: when the evidence concerns certain matters of public interest considered to be more important than the full disclosure of facts to the court, and when it relates to miscellaneous matters connected with litigation. The chapter also discusses evidence that has been illegally obtained, though this topic is not usually covered under the umbrella of public policy. Although there is no comparably strict general exclusionary rule, it is increasingly the case that the courts recognize the existence of an exclusionary discretion. This is governed in part by weighing the public interest in the conviction of guilty criminals against the public interest in the preservation of basic civil liberties.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Tort Law

Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11  

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

9. Misrepresentation  

Robert Merkin, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas on the law curriculum. False statements of fact that induce a contract are known as actionable misrepresentations. In case of a misrepresentation, there are different legal remedies for breaches of contract. A misrepresentation renders the contract voidable (liable to be set aside using the remedy of rescission) so that the contract will be treated as if it had never been made, whereas a breach of contract will have no effect on the existence of the contract (in the absence of a repudiatory breach that will terminate the contract when future contractual obligations will be discharged). The chapter identifies actionable misrepresentations and, in particular, loss in instances where there is a duty of disclosure in English law. There are three types of actionable misrepresentations, dependent upon the state of mind of the one who makes the false statement: fraudulent, negligent, and innocent. This chapter looks at the legal remedies for actionable misrepresentations such as rescission, the availability of damages for different types of misrepresentations, and the provisions of the Misrepresentation Act 1967. It also examines the effect of the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (CPRs) as amended on this area of law, the criminal offences and civil remedies for consumers, as well as the relationship of misrepresentation to other areas of law. Finally, it looks at clauses that seek to exclude or limit liability for misrepresentation or to deny any actionable misrepresentation, e.g. ‘non-reliance clauses’.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

17. Misrepresentation  

A misrepresentation induces a party to enter into a contract but typically is not part of the contract itself. The chapter examines the different types of misrepresentation (fraudulent, negligent, or innocent) and the remedies that the law provides in respect of a misrepresentation. The chapter focuses on the liability for misrepresentation. It begins by examining the definition of a misrepresentation. The chapter considers the extent to which English law recognizes the existence of a duty of disclosure and goes on to discuss the concept of rescission. It then explores how misrepresentation gives rise to a claim for damages, with a particular focus on section 2 of the Misrepresentation Act 1967. The final section examines the possibility of excluding liability for misrepresentation.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Law

9. Fraud  

This chapter begins with a discussion of the law on fraud, covering fraud by false representation; fraud by failing to disclose information; fraud by abuse of position; fraud and possession offences; obtaining services dishonestly; conspiracy to defraud; and making off without payment. The offence of fraud can be committed where the defendant dishonestly makes a false representation intending to make a gain for themselves or a loss to another. The defendant is only guilty if they know that the statement is, or might be, untrue or misleading. Fraud is also committed where the defendant dishonestly fails to disclose information which they are under a duty to disclose, intending to make a gain for themselves or cause a loss to another. A third way of committing fraud is where the defendant misuses a position of trust in a dishonest way to make a gain or cause a loss. The second part of the chapter focuses on the theory of fraud, covering the extent and nature of fraud, and the Fraud Act 2006.

Chapter

Cover Street on Torts

22. Privacy actions in tort  

This chapter examines the privacy action in tort. It explains that the tort has its origins in the equitable wrong of breach of confidence. It discusses the gist and elements of this tort and highlights the influence of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights on the case law. The law now protects against infringements of private information and against infringements upon the seclusion of the individual. This chapter also discusses potential defences, which include consent to the disclosure and the differential treatment of private information in the public domain.

Chapter

Cover Poole's Textbook on Contract Law

9. Misrepresentation  

Robert Merkin KC, Séverine Saintier, and Jill Poole

Course-focused and comprehensive, Poole’s Textbook on Contract Law provides an accessible overview of the key areas of the law curriculum. False statements of fact that induce a contract are known as actionable misrepresentations. In case of a misrepresentation, there are different legal remedies for breaches of contract. A misrepresentation renders the contract voidable (liable to be set aside using the remedy of rescission) so that the contract will be treated as if it had never been made, whereas a breach of contract will have no effect on the existence of the contract (in the absence of a repudiatory breach that will terminate the contract when future contractual obligations will be discharged). The chapter identifies actionable misrepresentations and, in particular, loss in instances where there is a duty of disclosure in English law. There are three types of actionable misrepresentations, dependent upon the state of mind of the one who makes the false statement: fraudulent, negligent, and innocent. This chapter looks at the legal remedies for actionable misrepresentations such as rescission, the availability of damages for different types of misrepresentations, and the provisions of the Misrepresentation Act 1967. It also examines the effect of the Consumer Protection from Unfair Trading Regulations 2008 (CPRs) as amended on this area of law, the criminal offences, and civil remedies for consumers, as well as the relationship of misrepresentation to other areas of law. Finally, it looks at clauses that seek to exclude or limit liability for misrepresentation or to deny any actionable misrepresentation, e.g. ‘non-reliance clauses’.

Chapter

Cover Contract Law

5. Misrepresentation and non-disclosure  

In general, contract parties need not disclose important matters about the transaction to each other. But, those who make false statements to induce the other party’s consent to the contract may find themselves liable for damages for misrepresentation and their contracts set aside. This chapter examines: (1) what must be proved in an action for misrepresentation; (2) what, if any, duty is imposed for non-disclosure; (3) when a contract can be set aside (rescinded) for misrepresentation; (4) the different types of money awards that can be made for misrepresentation; (5) the extent to which the parties can exclude or limit liability for making a misrepresentation; (6) the recourse that consumers have against misleading and aggressive practices; and (7) the justifications underlying the remedies for misrepresentation.

Chapter

Cover O'Sullivan & Hilliard's The Law of Contract

9. Misrepresentation and non-disclosure  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter examines issues related to pre-contractual misrepresentation, which is a vitiating factor. It explains what counts as an actionable misrepresentation and discusses its distinction with the treatment of non-disclosure. It explores the elements for an actionable misrepresentation and the test of cause/reliance. It considers the remedies for misrepresentation, namely rescission which involves setting the contract aside and restoring the parties to the pre-contractual position, and damages, which are available at common law for fraudulent misrepresentation and under the Misrepresentation Act 1967 for other misrepresentations unless the misrepresentor can discharge the burden of reasonable grounds for belief. This chapter also explains that any clause that purports to exclude or restrict liability for misrepresentation is subject to the statutory requirement of reasonableness (for non-consumer contracts), and the normal CRA test of fairness (for consumer contracts).

Chapter

Cover Company Law

19. Corporate transparency  

This chapter describes the UK’s corporate transparency regime, including the statutory registers, the annual accounts and reports, the role of the auditor, and other notable disclosure obligations. Companies are required to keep a number of statutory registers, but private companies may instead elect to have Companies House keep the relevant information on its central register. Meanwhile, all companies are generally required to prepare accounts for each financial year, and these are known as ‘individual accounts’. Parent companies, in addition to preparing individual accounts, must also prepare group accounts. The annual reports consist of the strategic report, the directors’ report, the auditor’s report, and the directors’ remuneration report. The role of a statutory auditor, which must be independent of the company, is to report on whether the company’s accounts represent a fair and true view of the company’s finances.

Chapter

Cover Intellectual Property Law

20. Internal Requirements for Patentability  

L. Bently, B. Sherman, D. Gangjee, and P. Johnson

This chapter deals with the internal requirements for patentability (that is, the focus is on the way the patent is drafted). It first discusses the sufficiency of disclosure, with particular reference to the scope of the patent monopoly, the ‘technical contribution’ made by the invention, and whether the invention is disclosed in a manner that is clear and complete enough for it to be performed by a person skilled in the art. It then turns to the form and content of the claims, with emphasis on the clarity and conciseness of the claims, whether they are supported by the description, and whether they relate to one invention. It also considers the requirement that the patent must not be amended to prevent it from acquiring additional subject matter or extending the protection conferred by the patent, along with restrictions on such amendments.

Chapter

Cover Mason and McCall Smith's Law and Medical Ethics

4. Consent to Treatment  

G. T. Laurie, S. H. E. Harmon, and E. S. Dove

This chapter discusses ethical and legal aspects of patient consent. It covers the limits to consent (including the context of the unconscious patient and adults lacking capacity); the refusal of treatment by capacitous adults and others; the consequences of proceeding without consent; and the negligence action and the vagaries of information disclosure.

Chapter

Cover Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts

Schmidt v Rosewood Trust [2003] UKPC 26, Privy Council  

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Schmidt v Rosewood Trust [2003] UKPC 26, Privy Council. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

10. Public interest immunity  

This chapter first explains exclusion of evidence on the grounds of the public interest immunity (PII) doctrine in relation to the public interest in non-disclosure of documents. The chapter examines areas of public interest that are covered by possible PII claims. These include national security, defence and foreign policy, protection of children, the identity of police informers, and confidential records held by public bodies. The difference between PII and closed material procedures (CMPs) is outlined. The chapter, concentrating on civil cases, lists the landmarks in the evolution of the common law doctrine. It considers the extent which it has been influenced by the Strasbourg jurisprudence. Attention is given to the role of national security matters in the evolution of the law.