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Collecting and analysing evidence is often one of the most expensive elements of litigation. The approach to dealing with disclosure of evidence has been modified as part of the reforms introduced following the review carried out by Lord Justice Sir Rupert Jackson. The norm of standard disclosure has been replaced by options for the level of disclosure designed to ensure that disclosure is proportionate, which presents opportunities for saving costs and opens up some tactical considerations as regards the level of disclosure to seek and to offer. This chapter focuses on general principles and approaches that are most likely to be effective in preparing a case. It discusses the key rules of admissibility; questions of weight and reliability on the evidence presented; identifying what needs to be proved in a case; types of evidence; collecting evidence; disclosure of evidence; electronic disclosure of evidence; and reviewing and advising on evidence.

Chapter

This chapter considers a number of other special forms of disclosure orders, the best known of which is the Norwich Pharmacal order. Norwich Pharmacal orders are primarily used for finding the identity of an unknown potential defendant. They can only be sought against a person who facilitated and got ‘mixed up’ in the wrongdoing. Norwich Pharmacal orders therefore cannot be made against ‘mere witnesses’. Pre-action disclosure orders bring forward the time when disclosure of documents takes place to the period before a claim is issued. Disclosure against non-parties enables the court to order a witness to produce documents in advance of the trial, thus avoiding adjournments when documents are produced at the last minute at trial.

Chapter

This chapter considers a number of other special forms of disclosure orders, the best known of which is the Norwich Pharmacal order. Norwich Pharmacal orders are primarily used for finding the identity of an unknown potential defendant. They can only be sought against a person who facilitated and got ‘mixed up’ in the wrongdoing. Norwich Pharmacal orders therefore cannot be made against ‘mere witnesses’. Pre-action disclosure orders bring forward the time when disclosure of documents takes place to the period before a claim is issued. Disclosure against non-parties enables the court to order a witness to produce documents in advance of the trial, thus avoiding adjournments when documents are produced at the last minute at trial.

Chapter

This chapter considers a number of other special forms of disclosure orders, the best known of which is the Norwich Pharmacal order. Norwich Pharmacal orders are primarily used for finding the identity of an unknown potential defendant. They can only be sought against a person who facilitated and got ‘mixed up’ in the wrongdoing. Norwich Pharmacal orders therefore cannot be made against ‘mere witnesses’. Pre-action disclosure orders bring forward the time when disclosure of documents takes place to the period before a claim is issued. Disclosure against non-parties enables the court to order a witness to produce documents in advance of the trial, thus avoiding adjournments when documents are produced at the last minute at trial.

Chapter

The ‘price’ that companies are required to pay for the privilege of incorporation (separate personality) and limited liability is compulsory publicity about their affairs. The Companies Acts’ disclosure rules are largely based on this philosophy. This chapter discusses general disclosure obligations; public regulation of securities markets; transparency obligations; disclosure and public offerings of shares; market abuse; and public investigation of companies.

Chapter

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) require the parties to give advance notice to their opponents of all the material documentation in their control. This is done in two stages. At the first stage the parties send each other lists of documents, a process called ‘disclosure’. The second stage is ‘inspection’, which is the process by which the other side can request copies of documents appearing in the list of documents, typically with photocopies being provided by the disclosing party. This chapter discusses these processes. It covers lawyers’ and clients’ responsibilities; the stage when disclosure takes place; disclosure orders; standard disclosure; menu option disclosure; duty to search; list of documents; privilege; inspection; orders in support of disclosure; documents referred to in statements of case, etc.; admission of authenticity; and collateral use.

Chapter

This chapter considers the definition of ‘disclosure’, its purpose, its extent, and the process whereby it is implemented. It also looks at other types of disclosure and the times at which such disclosure may take place—some of which may be before litigation has been commenced. The formal provisions for disclosure are contained in the Civil Procedure Rules 31 and the accompanying Practice Direction. The formal disclosure rules apply to cases in the fast track and the multi-track. They do not automatically apply to the small claims track. Disclosure has been much in the legal press recently, and the new draft disclosure rules are discussed.

Chapter

This chapter considers the definition of ‘disclosure’, its purpose, its extent, and the process whereby it is implemented. It also looks at other types of disclosure and the times at which such disclosure may take place—some of which may be before litigation has been commenced. The formal provisions for disclosure are contained in the Civil Procedure Rules 31 and the accompanying Practice Direction. The formal disclosure rules apply to cases in the fast track and the multi-track. They do not automatically apply to the small claims track. Disclosure has been much in the legal press recently, and the new draft disclosure rules are discussed.

Chapter

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) require the parties to give advance notice to their opponents of all the material documentation in their control. This is done in two stages. At the first stage the parties send each other lists of documents, a process called ‘disclosure’. The second stage is ‘inspection’, which is the process by which the other side can request copies of documents appearing in the list of documents, typically with photocopies being provided by the disclosing party. This chapter discusses these processes. It covers lawyers’ and clients’ responsibilities; the stage when disclosure takes place; disclosure orders; standard disclosure; menu option disclosure; duty to search; list of documents; privilege; inspection; orders in support of disclosure; documents referred to in statements of case, etc.; admission of authenticity; and collateral use.

Chapter

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (CPR) require the parties to give advance notice to their opponents of all the material documentation in their control. This is done in two stages. At the first stage the parties send each other lists of documents, a process called ‘disclosure’. The second stage is ‘inspection’, which is the process by which the other side can request copies of documents appearing in the list of documents, typically with photocopies being provided by the disclosing party. This chapter discusses these processes. It covers lawyers’ and clients’ responsibilities; the stage when disclosure takes place; disclosure orders; standard disclosure; menu option disclosure; duty to search; list of documents; privilege; inspection; orders in support of disclosure; documents referred to in statements of case, etc.; admission of authenticity; and collateral use.

Chapter

This chapter argues that relevant evidence must be excluded on the ground of public policy on certain conditions. It explores two of these conditions: when the evidence concerns certain matters of public interest considered to be more important than the full disclosure of facts to the court, and when it relates to miscellaneous matters connected with litigation. The chapter also discusses evidence that has been illegally obtained, though this topic is not usually covered under the umbrella of public policy. Although there is no comparably strict general exclusionary rule, it is increasingly the case that the courts recognize the existence of an exclusionary discretion. This is governed in part by weighing the public interest in the conviction of guilty criminals against the public interest in the preservation of basic civil liberties.

Chapter

This chapter considers the following categories of hearsay: statements in public documents, works of reference, evidence of age, evidence of reputation, statements forming part of the res gestae and statements which are admissions made by an agent of a defendant. All of these categories were established at common law as exceptions to the rule against hearsay, and all of them have been preserved by statute. The categories relating to age and res gestae have been preserved in criminal but not civil proceedings. All of the other categories have been preserved in both criminal and civil proceedings.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on experts and opinion evidence. As a general rule, opinion evidence is inadmissible: a witness may only speak of facts that he personally perceived, not of inferences drawn from those facts. However, there are two exceptions to this general rule: (i) an appropriately qualified expert may state his opinion on a matter calling for the expertise that he possesses; and (ii) a non-expert witness may state his opinion on a matter not calling for any particular expertise as a way of conveying the facts that he personally perceived. Experts may also give evidence of fact based on their expertise. The chapter covers the duties of experts and the rules which apply where parties propose to call expert evidence

Chapter

This chapter considers the following categories of hearsay: statements in public documents, works of reference, evidence of birth, age, and death, evidence of reputation, statements forming part of the res gestae, and statements which are admissions made by an agent of a defendant. All of these categories were established at common law as exceptions to the rule against hearsay, and all of them have been preserved by statute. The categories relating to age and res gestae have been preserved in criminal but not civil proceedings. All of the other categories have been preserved in both criminal and civil proceedings.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Montgomery v Lanarkshire Health Board [2015] UKSC 11. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the law on experts and opinion evidence. As a general rule, opinion evidence is inadmissible: a witness may only speak of facts that he personally perceived, not of inferences drawn from those facts. However, there are two exceptions to this general rule: (i) an appropriately qualified expert may state his opinion on a matter calling for the expertise that he possesses; and (ii) a non-expert witness may state his opinion on a matter not calling for any particular expertise as a way of conveying the facts that he personally perceived. Experts may also give evidence of fact based on their expertise. The chapter covers the duties of experts and the rules which apply where parties propose to call expert evidence.

Chapter

This chapter first explains the role of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) and the factors that are taken into account when deciding to charge a suspect or to divert him from prosecution. It then examines the important obligations which are placed upon the CPS both at common law and under statute to serve pre-trial disclosure of evidence upon the defendant and their importance to the right to a fair trial. Defence disclosure obligations are also considered.

Chapter

This chapter first explains the role of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) and the factors that are taken into account when deciding to charge a suspect or to divert him from prosecution. It then examines the important obligations which are placed upon the CPS both at common law and under statute to serve pre-trial disclosure of evidence upon the defendant and their importance to the right to a fair trial. Defence disclosure obligations are also considered.