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Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses the idea of human rights, as well as a range of political and constitutional issues to which they give rise. The general history of the international protection of human rights from which the UK system is derived is also introduced. The chapter furthermore presents examples of human rights abuses specific to the UK that are, to some extent, at the mild end of the full spectrum of human rights abuses found in other parts of Europe or in the rest of the world. The concept of human rights assumes that all reasonable human beings share the feeling that, in whatever they do, they need to accord proper respect to the dignity of all individual human beings. States and governments, in particular, must ensure that individual dignity is respected in their laws and practices.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to “modern slavery” is discussed.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses the idea of human rights, as well as a range of political and constitutional issues to which they give rise. The general history of the international protection of human rights from which the UK system is derived is also introduced. The chapter furthermore presents examples of human rights abuses specific to the UK that are, to some extent, at the mild end of the full spectrum of human rights abuses found in other parts of Europe or in the rest of the world. The concept of human rights assumes that all reasonable human beings share the feeling that, in whatever they do, they need to accord proper respect to the dignity of all individual human beings. States and governments, in particular, must ensure that individual dignity is respected in their laws and practices.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. It discusses European Convention law and relates it to domestic law under the HRA. Questions, discussion points, and thinking points help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress and knowledge can be tested by self-test questions and exam questions at the chapter end. This chapter discusses slavery and forced labour, and the ban on these imposed by the European Convention on Human Rights. ‘Slavery’ and ‘servitude’ are defined as the ownership or total control of one person by another. A slave has no freedom or autonomy and so is denied the minimum dignity that is essential for any human being. ‘Forced labour’, on the other hand, is defined as being forced to work for another under threat of punishment or death. The application of these terms in the context of current practice and, in particular, to ‘modern slavery’ is discussed.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter begins with an overview of human rights and how ideas about rights have changed over time, from the intellectual enlightenment of the eighteenth century that emphasised the connection between natural rights and dignity, to the rise of consequentialist philosophers in the nineteenth century who challenged natural rights and insisted on the promotion of a common good or welfare. It then considers the historical development of rights and the emergence of international protection of human rights in the twentieth century as a result of war and atrocity, focusing on the war crime trials and the formation of the United Nations after the Second World War. The chapter also looks at the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the creation of treaties as well as regional agreements, before concluding with an assessment of human rights today and categories of rights, along with human rights in the UK.

Chapter

This chapter examines international human rights laws on the right to liberty. It first considers slavery, the most serious threat to an individual’s right to liberty, and then discusses the application of the general rights of liberty and security of person, and the detention of individuals.

Chapter

Nigel S Rodley

This chapter examines rights at the core of the concept of integrity of the person. Specifically, it considers the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment and the right to life. The chapter addresses complex definitional issues of what constitutes torture, and addresses other ill-treatment, mainly in the light of treaty definitions and case law of courts and other bodies charged with applying relevant treaties. The same approach is taken with respect to the right to life, where the central issues of the limits international law places on the death penalty and on the use of force by security forces and law enforcement officials are considered. Both rights are considered to be rules of customary international law and probably peremptory norms of international law (jus cogens).

Chapter

This chapter examines international human rights laws on the right to liberty. It first considers slavery, the most serious threat to an individual’s right to liberty, and then discusses the application of the general rights of liberty and security of person, including the detention of individuals. For many people, liberty is regarded as one of the central tenets of personal freedom; hence slavery and practices analogous to slavery are viewed as morally repugnant and usually legally indefensible. Nevertheless, there are circumstances in which States can restrict liberty, for legitimate purposes, without infringing human rights. This has been demonstrated during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Chapter

Carla Ferstman

This chapter examines the right to be free from torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment and the right to life. These are fundamental rights which stem from the concepts of human dignity and the integrity of the person, both foundational principles of human rights law. Following explanations of both these principles, the chapter sets out the meaning and content of the right to be free from torture and other cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment. It then explains the right to life, analysing similarly the content of the right and its limitations and how it has been interpreted in recent jurisprudence and treaty body commentaries.