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Chapter

Cover Evidence

12. Drawing adverse inferences from a defendant’s omissions, lies, or false alibis  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. A suspect’s silence in response to questioning is liable to arouse suspicion. This chapter discusses: the so-called right to silence; permissible inferences drawn from the defendant’s silence at common law; the failures provisions of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994: permissible inferences drawn from the defendant’s failure to mention facts, failure to testify, failure or refusal to account for objects etc, or failure to account for presence; permissible inferences drawn from lies told by the defendant: Lucas directions; permissible inferences drawn from false alibis put forward by the defendant.

Chapter

Cover Evidence

6. Character and credibility  

Titles in the Core Text series take the reader straight to the heart of the subject, providing focused, concise, and reliable guides for students at all levels. This chapter discusses the following: issue and credit; the concept of ‘credibility’; and bringing out the character of the parties and their witnesses. Evidence introduced to illuminate someone’s character is a fairly common feature in both civil and criminal trials. Considerable restrictions apply in criminal cases since the Criminal Justice Act 2003. According to the context, however, it may fulfil different purposes. Notably, it may serve as a potential indicator of whether or not someone is likely to be a truthful witness.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

26. Security for Costs  

The question of who pays for the costs of a claim is generally not determined until the claim is finally disposed of, whether by consent, interim process, or trial. However, an order for security for costs can be made against a party in the position of a claimant. Once security is given it may be retained, subject to the court’s discretion, pending an appeal. An order for security for costs usually requires the claimant to pay money into court as security for the payment of any costs order that may eventually be made in favour of the defendant, and staying the claim until the security is provided. On the application three issues arise: (i) whether one of the conditions for ordering security for costs is satisfied; (ii) if so, whether, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, it would be just to exercise the court’s discretion in favour of making the order; and (iii) if so, how much security should be provided. This chapter considers each of these three issues. It begins by looking at the procedure for making the application and the capacity of the respondent to the application.

Chapter

Cover Criminal Justice

4. The prosecution process  

Anthea Hucklesby

This chapter explores issues relating to the prosecution process. It introduces some of the main theoretical and conceptual issues with the prosecution process, and considers a number of key trends in recent criminal justice law and policy. The discussions cover the agencies involved in the prosecution process; making sense of the criminal justice process; diminishing defendants' rights; and differential treatment.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

5. Character evidence  

This chapter, which focuses on the admissibility and evidential worth of character evidence, explains the definition of bad character under the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (CJA). It examines how bad character evidence of the defendant may be admitted through one of the ‘gateways’ under the Act. It reviews the evidential worth of the character evidence if admitted and explains the difference between propensity and credibility. The law on the admissibility of the bad character of non-defendant witnesses is explained and the reasons for a more protective stance highlighted. The chapter concludes with a review of the admissibility of good character evidence, governed by the common law.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

16. Defending an Action  

This chapter focuses on the role of the defendant. The litigation system in England is adversarial, thus on the face of it the role of the defendant is potentially defensive, confrontational, and non cooperative. While the objective of the defendant will usually be to make the claim go away, the perhaps natural desire to take an approach that involves denial, delay, and obfuscation wherever possible must be resisted, or at least carefully considered. The chapter discusses the main types of defence to an action; dealing with the early stages of an action when a claim form is received; rules for drafting a defence; making a counterclaim; claiming a set-off; a general framework for a defence and counterclaim; and strategies and tactics in defending a case.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

49. Judicial Review  

This chapter discusses the rules for judicial review. Judicial review lies against public bodies and must be brought by a person with a sufficient interest. There are six remedies available on applications for judicial review (quashing order, mandatory orders, prohibitory order, declaration, injunction, and money awards). Before commencing judicial review proceedings, a claimant should comply with the judicial review pre-action protocol. Permission must be sought to proceed with a claim for judicial review. Defendants must be served with the judicial review claim form, and unless they acknowledge service they cannot appear at the permission hearing unless the court allows them to attend.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

7. Renewal of Process  

After proceedings commence by issuing a claim form or other originating process, they must be brought to the attention of the defendants or respondents by service. Generally, originating process remains valid for the purpose of service for a period of four months. Service of proceedings marks a watershed in the litigation process. It is at this point that the defendant is put on formal notice that legal proceedings have been brought, and the time limit on service of proceedings is one which is relaxed with extreme caution. This chapter discusses periods of validity; power to renew; claims in respect of cargo carried by sea; multiple defendants; effect of stay; procedure on seeking an extension; and challenging an order granting an extension.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

12. Responding to a Claim  

This chapter discusses the procedure for defendants responding to the claim. A defendant who intends to contest proceedings must respond to the claim by filing an acknowledgment of service and/or by filing a defence. Defended claims become subject to the court’s case management system, with the court making provisional track allocation decisions, followed by the parties filing directions questionnaires. If a defendant fails to make any response to a claim a default judgment is usually entered within a relatively short period after service.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

13. Default Judgment  

Judgment in default may be entered where the defendant fails to defend a claim. It produces a judgment in favour of a claimant without holding a trial. This chapter discusses when default judgment may be entered; cases excluded from judgment in default; entering default judgment; final judgment and judgment for an amount to be decided; deciding the amount of damages; setting aside default judgments; and stay of undefended cases.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure

24. Summary Judgment  

Summary judgment is used where a purported defence can be shown to have no real prospect of success and there is no other compelling reason why the case should be disposed of at trial. The procedure for entering summary judgment is not limited to use by claimants against defendants. Defendants may apply for summary judgment to attack weak claims brought by claimants. This chapter discusses time for applying for summary judgment; defendant’s application for summary judgment; excluded proceedings; orders available; amendment at hearing; other compelling reasons for a trial; directions on summary judgment hearing; and specific performance, rescission, and forfeiture in property cases.

Book

Cover Evidence Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Evidence Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. Written by experts, it covers all the key topics so you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you get the most out of your revision. After an introduction, the book covers principles and key concepts; burden of proof; confessions and the defendant’s silence; improperly obtained evidence, other than confessions; character evidence; hearsay evidence; competence and compellability, special measures; identification evidence and questioning at trial; opinion evidence; public interest immunity; and privilege.

Book

Cover Concentrate Questions and Answers Evidence
The Concentrate Questions and Answers series offers the best preparation for tackling exam questions and coursework. Each book includes typical questions, bullet-pointed answer plans and suggested answers, author commentary and illustrative diagrams and flow charts. Concentrate Q&A Evidence offers expert advice on what to expect from your Evidence exam, how best to prepare and guidance on what examiners are really looking for. Written by experienced examiners, it provides clear commentary with each question and answer and bullet points and diagram answer plans plus tips to make your answer really stand out from the crowd and further reading suggestions at the end of every chapter. The book should help the reader identify typical law exam questions, structure a first-class answer, avoid common mistakes, show the examiner what the reader knows and find relevant further reading. After an introduction, the book covers burden and standard of proof, presumptions, competence and compellability, Special Measures Directions, character evidence, hearsay, confessions, the defendant’s silence, improperly obtained evidence, supporting evidence, identification expert opinion, issues in the course of trial, privilege, public policy and mixed questions. The final chapter gives guidance on assessed coursework. The book is suitable for undergraduate law students taking optional modules in Evidence.

Chapter

Cover Evidence Concentrate

7. Competence, compellability, and special measures  

This chapter focuses on the competence and compellability of witnesses in criminal and, in outline, in civil trials. It explains the main criminal law exceptions in relation to competence and universal compellability. It gives details on the complex and controversial position under s80 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984. The chapter outlines the special measures directions (SMDs) available under the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCAE) 1999 for vulnerable non-defendant witnesses in criminal trials. The more limited measures for vulnerable defendants are outlined, in particular the use of intermediaries. The chapter concludes with an outline of the Criminal Evidence (Witness Anonymity) Act 2008.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

11. Funding Access to Justice  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter examines how litigation is funded. It considers the growth, and eventual decline, in legal aid, and how alternative sources of funding have begun to be used. The chapter considers both criminal and civil litigation. It notes how there is an increase in defendants-in-person before the criminal courts because of restrictions in legal aid. It questions whether this is appropriate, particularly where the loss of liberty is a real possibility. The chapter also considers how civil litigation is now funded. This includes how ‘no win, no fee’ arrangements were at first encouraged, but then subject to restrictions because it was felt the balance of risk vs. gain was inappropriate. The chapter charts the growth of before and after-the-event insurance, and the increase in third-party funding where the litigation is for large sums of money.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

14. Those in Court  

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter focuses on the people who are present during criminal trials. It considers those in summary trials in magistrates’ court (magistrates, justices’ clerks/legal advisors, lawyers, and the defendant). It also considers those who are present in the Crown Court during a trial on indictment (the judge, the jury, lawyers, court clerks, the stenographer, the usher, and the defendant). The chapter also explores how lawyers for the defence are funded under the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012.

Chapter

Cover A Practical Approach to Effective Litigation

13. Joining the Right Parties  

The accurate identification of parties is vital in an adversarial system. There must be a clear cause of action by the party named as claimant against the party named as defendant or the action will fail. Loss and damage must be also shown to have been caused to the named claimant by the named defendant or damages will not be recoverable. This chapter first discusses the selection of claimants and defendants, and other types of involvement (agency, vicarious liability, the role of insurance, substitution of parties). Where a business is a party to an action, it may be run by a sole trader, by a partnership, by a company, or by a public limited partnership. The correct legal personality must be used for the proper service of documents, for success in the action, and for enforcement of judgment. The remainder of the chapter covers the rules for specific types of parties; additional claims and additional parties under Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) Part 20; and the drafting of the Part 20 claim.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

11. Funding Access to Justice  

This chapter examines how litigation is funded. It considers the growth, and eventual decline, in legal aid, and how alternative sources of funding have begun to be used. The chapter considers both criminal and civil litigation. It notes how there is an increase in defendants in person before the criminal courts because of restrictions in legal aid. It questions whether this is appropriate, particularly where the loss of liberty is a real possibility. The chapter also considers how civil litigation is now funded. This includes how ‘no win, no fee’ arrangements were at first encouraged, but then subject to restrictions because it was felt the balance of risk vs gain was inappropriate. The chapter charts the growth of before and after the event insurance, and the increase in third-party funding where the litigation is for large sums of money.

Chapter

Cover The English Legal System

14. Those in Court  

This chapter focuses on the people who are present during criminal trials. It considers those in summary trials in magistrates’ court (magistrates, justices’ clerks/legal advisors, lawyers, and the defendant). It also considers those who are present in the Crown Court during a trial on indictment (the judge, the jury, lawyers, court clerks, the stenographer, the usher, and the defendant). The chapter then explores how lawyers for the defence are funded under the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012.

Chapter

Cover Casebook on Tort Law

3. Special duty problems: omissions and acts of third parties  

This chapter discusses the problem of when a duty of care arises in respect of negligent omissions, or for the actions of a third party. The common law takes the view that it would be too great a burden to impose liability upon a person for a mere omission, or for the actions of others. Despite this, duties can in fact be imposed in various ways, all of which focus on the reliance of the claimant upon the defendant. This can come about either by the previous conduct of the defendant, which induces reliance by the claimant that the defendant will continue to act in that way, or by reliance which comes out of a relationship of dependence between the parties. As regards third parties, a duty may arise where the defendant has control over or responsibility for the third party’s actions.