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Chapter

This chapter examines the foundational principles of defamation in tort law. It explains that there are two types of defamation, libel and slander, the former of which concerns ‘permanent’ and the latter of which concerns other imputations. The chapter discusses the main elements of defamatory imputation: reference, publication, and serious harm. It suggests, taking into account the defences examined in the next chapter, that liability for defamation reflects efforts to strike a balance between the interests of free speech and the preservation of one’s reputation. This chapter incorporates the provisions of the Defamation Act 2013 and analyses recent court cases exploring its provisions.

Chapter

This chapter examines defamation cases arising from traditional media sites and user-generated media entries. It first provides an overview of the tort of defamation, and the issue of who is responsible and potentially liable for an online defamatory statement. It then looks at the Defamation Act 2013, considering when defences may be raised to a claim in defamation, and how online publication and republication may result in defamation. Four cases are analysed: Dow Jones v Gutnick, Loutchansky v Times Newspapers, King v Lewis, and Jameel v Dow Jones. The chapter explores intermediary liability, particularly the liability of UK internet service providers, by citing recent decisions on intermediary liability such as Tamiz v Google, Delfi v Estonia, and MTE v Hungary, as well as specific intermediary defences found in the Defamation Act 2013. The chapter concludes by discussing key social media cases such as McAlpine v Bercow and Monroe v Hopkins.

Chapter

This chapter examines the foundational principles of defamation in tort law. It explains that there are two types of defamation, libel and slander. The chapter discusses the main elements of defamatory imputation, reference, publication, and serious harm. It suggests that liability for defamation reflects efforts to strike a balance between the interests of free speech and preserving one’s reputation. This chapter incorporates the provisions of the Defamation Act 2013 and analyses relevant court cases.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Lachaux v Independent Print Ltd and others [2019] 3 WLR 18. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Stocker v Stocker [2019] UKSC 17. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Stocker v Stocker [2019] UKSC 17. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Lachaux v Independent Print Ltd and others [2019] 3 WLR 18. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Stocker v Stocker [2019] UKSC 17. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Tort Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Lachaux v Independent Print Ltd and others [2019] 3 WLR 18. The document also included supporting commentary from author Craig Purshouse.

Chapter

This chapter considers a range of ‘communication’ offences. The main focus is the offence of publishing an obscene article, contrary to the Obscene Publications Act 1959, and the offences under section 127 of the Communications Act 2003 and section 1 of the Malicious Communications Act 1988, concerned with the sending of false, indecent, or offensive messages. These offences are considered in the light of the right to free expression under Article 10 of the ECHR and the abolition of criminal defamation, and of the importance of allowing uninhibited political debate while protecting those taking part in such debate from abuse and threats.

Chapter

This chapter presents the tort of defamation. The tort is divided into two causes of action: libel, which concerns communications in permanent form; and slander, which concerns communications in transitory form. Libel has been actionable without proof of damage although serious harm is now a factor. Slander is actionable only with proof of damage except in two exceptional situations. The claimant must establish a defamatory statement, referring to the claimant and its publication. The primary defence to defamation is truth, and defences in this field raise issues under art 10 European Convention on Human Rights. The Defamation Acts 1996 and 2013 are covered, as are remedies for defamation.

Chapter

This chapter presents the tort of defamation. The tort is divided into two causes of action: libel, which concerns communications in permanent form; and slander, which concerns communications in transitory form. Libel has been actionable without proof of damage although serious harm is now a factor. Slander is actionable only with proof of damage except in two exceptional situations. The claimant must establish a defamatory statement, referring to the claimant and its publication. The primary defence to defamation is truth, and defences in this field raise issues under art 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The Defamation Acts 1996 and 2013 are covered, as are remedies for defamation.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the tort of defamation. This area of law has undergone significant legislative change following the enactment of the Defamation Act 2013. A defamatory statement can take two forms: it can either be spoken (slander) or written (libel). Only a false statement can be defamatory. It is up to the defendant to prove that the statement is true in order to avoid liability. Defences include honest opinion, publication on a matter of public interest and privilege (where the statement is made in the performance of a duty). Remedies include an injunction to prevent publication, and a permanent injunction to prevent further publication and damages.

Book

Kirsty Horsey and Erika Rackley

Kidner’s Casebook on Torts provides a comprehensive, portable library of the leading cases in the field. It presents a wide range of carefully edited extracts, which illustrate the essence and reasoning behind each decision made. Concise author commentary focuses the reader on the key elements within the extracts. Statutory materials are also included where they are necessary to understand the subject. The book examines the tort of negligence including chapters on the basic principles of duty of care, omissions and acts of third parties, the liability of public bodies, psychiatric harm, economic loss, breach of duty, causation and remoteness of damage and defences. It goes on to consider three special liability regimes—occupiers’ liability, product liability and breach of statutory duty—before turning to discussion of the personal torts and land torts. It concludes with chapters on vicarious liability and damages.

Book

Kirsty Horsey and Erika Rackley

Kidner’s Casebook on Torts provides a comprehensive, portable library of the leading cases in the field. It presents a wide range of carefully edited extracts, which illustrate the essence and reasoning behind each decision made. Concise author commentary focuses the reader on the key elements within the extracts. Statutory materials are also included where they are necessary to understand the subject. The book examines the tort of negligence including chapters on the basic principles of duty of care, omissions and acts of third parties, the liability of public bodies, psychiatric harm, economic loss, breach of duty, causation and remoteness of damage and defences. It goes on to consider three special liability regimes—occupiers’ liability, product liability and breach of statutory duty—before turning to discussion of the personal torts and land torts. It concludes with chapters on vicarious liability and damages.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter deals with the law of defamation. The basic rules of the common law of defamation state that: A is liable for saying anything to C about B which would be apt to make an average citizen think worse of the latter. In principle, B can sue A without having to show that what A said was false, that it caused him any harm, or that A was at any way at fault in saying it. The chapter distinguishes between what is ‘defamatory’ and what is not. It discusses the liability for the act of communication is called ‘publication’. It also considers defences: to apparent allegations of fact, the only defences are truth (called ‘justification’) and privilege; for statements of opinion, which cannot be false but at the most simulated, the defence is ‘fair comment on a matter of public interest’.

Chapter

This chapter discusses the tort of defamation. This area of law has undergone significant legislative change following the enactment of the Defamation Act 2013. Only a false statement can be defamatory. It is up to the defendant to prove that the statement is true in order to avoid liability. Defences include honest opinion, publication on a matter of public interest and privilege (where the statement is made in the performance of a duty). Remedies include an injunction to prevent publication, and a permanent injunction to prevent further publication and damages.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. To answer questions on defamation, students need to understand the following: categories of defamation: libel and slander; what constitutes a defamatory statement: innuendo; defences to defamation: absolute privilege and qualified privilege; the Defamation Act 2013; and offer of amends, Defamation Act 1996 sections 2–4. To answer questions on privacy, students need to understand the following: the nature of privacy; the overlap between the torts of misuse of private information, and other causes of action; trespass; negligence; the Human Rights Act 1998; and the Protection from Harassment Act 1997.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Defences to defamation protect freedom of speech in English law. Some of the defences are ‘absolute’ while others are ‘qualified’. Absolute defence means that regardless of how careless the defendant has been in publishing the statement or whether he has been motivated by malice, he is completely protected. Qualified defence applies to a wider range of situations, but fails if the claimant can show that the statement was made ‘maliciously’. This chapter looks at the amendments to the existing defences to defamation contained in the Defamation Act 2013, and the introduction of new defences to protect operators of websites that host user-generated content are also examined.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams, and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. Defences to defamation protect freedom of speech in English law. Some of the defences are ‘absolute’ while others are ‘qualified’. Absolute defence means that regardless of how careless the defendant has been in publishing the statement or whether he has been motivated by malice, he is completely protected. Qualified defence applies to a wider range of situations, but fails if the claimant can show that the statement was made ‘maliciously’. This chapter looks at the amendments to the existing defences to defamation contained in the Defamation Act 2013 and the introduction of new defences to protect operators of websites that host user-generated content are also examined.