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Chapter

This chapter reviews the current policy focus on the ‘dangerous’ offender and the aim of protecting the public from the risk posed by an offender’s reoffending. It discusses developments in relation to a ‘culture of control’ and examines the utilitarian justifications for the incapacitation of offenders, or groups of offenders, believed to be dangerous. The chapter focuses on incapacitation, which is another utilitarian tool, but one that uses the removal of an offender from public life. It also examines the changes in sentencing law, focusing on new indeterminate sentences and the extended sentence, as well as the provisions for control of dangerous prisoners through early release procedures and through preventive orders. It also considers the dangerous mentally disordered offender.

Book

Sentencing and Punishment provides an accessible account of recent developments in sentencing and punishment from the standpoint of penal theories, policy aims, punishment practice, and human rights. It reviews changing ideas on what counts as ‘just’ punishment, and covers the key themes and topics studied on sentencing and punishment courses, New features of this, its fourth edition, include a focus on changes and continuities in penal and sentencing policy since 2010 as well as greater attention to sentencing guidelines and to the impact of the relevant sentencing provisions in force since the last edition, notably the Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 and the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015. Material on dangerous offenders is also updated. In two new chapters—‘Instead of punishment?’ and ‘Impact on victims and offenders’—this edition brings together different, yet linked, areas of sentencing law and practice to provide new perspectives, and in restructured chapters on community punishment and young offenders, it focuses on such recent developments as the privatisation of the delivery of community penalties, the ‘rehabilitation revolution’, and the decreased use of custody for young offenders. This edition also gives more attention to the continuing influence of human rights law and jurisprudence and incorporates more material on the impact of the Equality Act 2010 on the treatment of different groups within the prison population. It also now includes case studies and discussion questions at the end of each chapter.

Chapter

Where a prosecution is commenced against a child aged 10 to 13 years or against a young person aged 14 to 17 years, the general rule is that he will be tried and sentenced in the youth court. The youth court adopts more informal and less adversarial procedures to deal with the needs and vulnerabilities of young defendants. However, there are exceptional situations (grave offences and dangerous offenders) where they will be tried in the Crown Court or when jointly charged with an adult sometimes in the adult magistrates’ court. This chapter discusses the rules for deciding where a young person is to be tried; the rules for trying a young person in the Crown Court; the rules for trying a young person in the adult magistrates’ court; the young defendant’s right to court bail; and the procedure in the youth court.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

Where a prosecution is commenced against a child aged 10 to 13 years or against a young person aged 14 to 17 years, the general rule is that he will be tried and sentenced in the youth court. The youth court adopts more informal and less adversarial procedures to deal with the needs and vulnerabilities of young defendants. However, there are exceptional situations (grave offences and dangerous offenders) where they will be tried in the Crown Court or when jointly charged with an adult sometimes in the adult magistrates’ court. This chapter discusses the rules for deciding where a young person is to be tried; the rules for trying a young person in the Crown Court; the rules for trying a young person in the adult magistrates’ court; the young defendant’s right to court bail; and the procedure in the youth court.

Chapter

This chapter explains specific types of sentence and provide guidance on how a defence solicitor might prepare and deliver a plea in mitigation. It discusses when discretionary custodial sentence can be imposed; custody between the ages 18 and 21; length of custodial sentence; suspended sentence of imprisonment; concluding remarks on discretionary custodial sentences; fixed length sentences; sentencing dangerous offenders; community sentences; community sentences under the Criminal Justice Act (CJA) 2003; guilty plea credit and community orders; enforcement of community orders under the CJA 2003 in the event of breach; deferring sentence; fines; compensation orders; conditional discharge; absolute discharge; bind over; ancillary orders; structuring a plea in mitigation; advocacy and the plea in mitigation; and professional conduct.

Chapter

Martin Hannibal and Lisa Mountford

This chapter explains specific types of sentence and provide guidance on how a defence solicitor might prepare and deliver a plea in mitigation. It discusses when discretionary custodial sentence can be imposed; custody between the ages 18 and 21; length of custodial sentence; suspended sentence of imprisonment; concluding remarks on discretionary custodial sentences; fixed length sentences; sentencing dangerous offenders; community sentences; community sentences under the Criminal Justice Act (CJA) 2003; guilty plea credit and community orders; enforcement of community orders under the CJA 2003 in the event of breach; deferring sentence; fines; compensation orders; conditional discharge; absolute discharge; bind over; ancillary orders; structuring a plea in mitigation; advocacy and the plea in mitigation; and professional conduct.