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Chapter

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2018] UKSC 20. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2018] UKSC 20. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in One Step (Support) Ltd v Morris-Garner [2018] UKSC 20. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

This chapter deals with the primary remedy for breach of contract: damages. It looks at the basic test, which allows for the recovery of expectation loss, and also considers recovery of reliance loss and a restitutionary sum. The assessment for, and availability of, negotiating damages as recently affirmed by the Supreme Court in One Step (Support) LTD v Morris-Garner and Another (2019) is explored. The further limitations on recovery such as remoteness and the ‘duty’ to mitigate are considered, as is the distinction between liquidated damages and penalty clauses. The problem of recovering for non-financial losses—mental distress and the consumer surplus—is also addressed. Finally, the chapter looks at how the rules on penalties have been relaxed with the landmark judgments in Cavendish and ParkingEye (2015).

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Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

Essential Cases: Equity & Trusts provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Coventry v Lawrence [2014] UKSC 13, Supreme Court. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Derek Whayman.

Chapter

This chapter deals with the primary remedy for breach of contract: damages. It looks at the basic test, which allows for the recovery of expectation loss, and also considers recovery of reliance loss and a restitutionary sum. The further limitations on recovery such as remoteness and the ‘duty’ to mitigate are considered, as is the distinction between liquidated damages and penalty clauses. The problem of recovering for non-financial losses—mental distress and the consumer surplus—is also addressed. Finally, the chapter looks at how the rules on penalties have been relaxed with the landmark judgments in Cavendish and ParkingEye (2015).

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the principles by which contractual damages are assessed. The discussions cover the aim of contractual damages, the difference between damages in contract and in tort; the relationship between the expectation interest and the reliance interest; cost of cure and difference in value; remoteness of damage; foreseeability and assumption of risk; non-pecuniary losses; mitigation; contributory negligence; and penalties, liquidated damages and forfeiture.

Chapter

Without assuming prior legal knowledge, books in the Directions series introduce and guide readers through key points of law and legal debate. Questions, diagrams and exercises help readers to engage fully with each subject and check their understanding as they progress. This chapter examines the principles by which contractual damages are assessed. The discussions cover the aim of contractual damages, the difference between damages in contract and in tort; the relationship between the expectation interest and the reliance interest; cost of cure and difference in value; remoteness of damage; foreseeability and assumption of risk; non-pecuniary losses; mitigation; contributory negligence; and penalties, liquidated damages and forfeiture.

Chapter

The tortious infliction of injury to another person is remedied through the award of damages. This chapter discusses the different types of damages (compensatory damages, restitutionary damages, exemplary or punitive damages, aggravated damages, nominal damages, and contemptuous damages); lump sums and periodical payments; and damages for personal injury (non-pecuniary losses, loss of earnings, medical care, and deductions).

Chapter

Essential Cases: Contract Law provides a bridge between course textbooks and key case judgments. This case document summarizes the facts and decision in Attorney General v Blake & another [2000] UKHL 45; [2001] 1 AC 268. The document also includes supporting commentary from author Nicola Jackson.

Chapter

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter discusses the issue of damages, covering key debates, sample questions, diagram answer plan, tips for getting extra marks, and online resources. To answer questions on this topic, students need to understand the following: the primary purpose behind an award of damages; the different types of damages; the three principal types of damage for which a remedy may be available: personal injury (death and psychiatric harm included), property damage, economic loss; and how to calculate an award (in principle).

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter discusses the remedies that can be sought from the civil courts and how an appeal is made against a decision. It covers interim and final remedies; route of appeals; leave; the hearing; appeals to the Supreme Court; and examples of appeals. There are many different types of remedies that a court can award to a successful litigant. The most common form of remedy is that which is known as ‘damages’. Appeals in the civil courts follow a slightly more complicated structure than in criminal cases. In order to appeal in the civil cases it is usually necessary to seek permission before proceeding with a civil appeal. Save where it is a final decision in a multi-track case, the usual rule is that the appeal will be heard by the next most senior judge.

Chapter

Judgment in default may be entered where the defendant fails to defend a claim. It produces a judgment in favour of a claimant without holding a trial. This chapter discusses when default judgment may be entered; cases excluded from judgment in default; entering default judgment; final judgment and judgment for an amount to be decided; deciding the amount of damages; setting aside default judgments; and stay of undefended cases.

Chapter

Judgment in default may be entered where the defendant fails to defend a claim. It produces a judgment in favour of a claimant without holding a trial. This chapter discusses when default judgment may be entered; cases excluded from judgment in default; entering default judgment; final judgment and judgment for an amount to be decided; deciding the amount of damages; setting aside default judgments; and stay of undefended cases.

Chapter

Alisdair A. Gillespie and Siobhan Weare

This chapter discusses the remedies that can be sought from the civil courts and how an appeal is made against a decision. It covers interim and final remedies; route of appeals; leave; the hearing; appeals to the Supreme Court; and examples of appeals. There are many different types of remedies that a court can award to a successful litigant. The most common form of remedy is that which is known as ‘damages’. Appeals in the civil courts follow a slightly more complicated structure than in criminal cases. In order to appeal in the civil cases it is usually necessary to seek permission before proceeding with a civil appeal. Save where it is a final decision in a multi-track case, the usual rule is that the appeal will be heard by the next most senior judge.

Chapter

Judgment in default may be entered where the defendant fails to defend a claim. It produces a judgment in favour of a claimant without holding a trial. This chapter discusses when default judgment may be entered; cases excluded from judgment in default; entering default judgment; final judgment and judgment for an amount to be decided; deciding the amount of damages; setting aside default judgments; and stay of undefended cases.

Chapter

The main purpose of most litigation is to secure a remedy or relief. That is the reason why the claimant starts the action, and it should be the focus of many decisions relating to the case. From the first contact with the client, lawyers must be clear about what the client really wants to achieve, and decisions about causes of action, evidence, and interim applications should focus on the remedies and relief being pursued. This chapter discusses the remedies a court can and cannot order; claims for damages; quantification of damages; and claims for interest on top of claims for the payment of a sum of money or damages. The final section covers the importance of taking a proactive approach to claiming and quantifying damages.

Chapter

Celebrated for their conceptual clarity, titles in the Clarendon Law Series offer concise, accessible overviews of major fields of law and legal thought. This chapter discusses the issue of causation. Damages are due to the victim only if the harm was due to the tortfeasor. The harm must be the effect of the defendant's misconduct and causation must be established. The principal question to ask in matters of causation is: Did the breach of duty contribute to the occurrence of the harm? At all costs one must avoid the easy supposition that a result can have only one cause, or that one must seek out the ‘main’ cause, relevant though this may be in claims under an insurance policy. The chapter also identifies three ways that the law lets a defendant off the hook even though the harm would not have occurred but for his negligence. These are the rules of remoteness, intervention, and purpose.