This chapter begins with a brief overview of the history of community sentences as alternatives to custody. It then explores the current situation with regard to community sentences and alternatives to custody, drawing on the most up-to-date research available. The chapter also discusses the political environment in which the probation service finds itself. The concluding section summarizes the key issues around the topic.
8. Community sentences
15. Banks and the Capital Markets
Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare
This chapter considers banks' securities activities. Many banks have compensated for the decline in traditional finance by emphasizing their securities activities. These range from the traditional task of investment banks in advising, underwriting, and distributing new issues of securities, through to dealing on their own account on securities and derivatives markets — proprietary trading. In the decade leading up to the Global Financial Crisis, banks also played a significant role in introducing new products to these markets, including asset-backed securities and credit derivatives. The onset of the crisis provoked intense scrutiny and widespread criticism of many of these activities, and led to the introduction of significant controls on the ability of banks to engage in them. The chapter discusses types of securities, subordination, and custody; distributing securities issues; and securities regulation.
4. Detention in the police station
This chapter examines the effectiveness of the checks, controls, and safeguards provided for suspects in police detention, including for suspects considered to be vulnerable by the police. It also evaluates the effect of the European Convention on Human Rights and the Human Rights Act 1998. The discussions cover the powers and duties of custody officers and detention officers; length of detention without charge; suspects’ rights including the right to legal advice and the rights of vulnerable suspects; the purpose of and experiences of police detention; and deaths in police custody.
9. International parent–child abduction
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter focuses on child abduction whereby a parent takes a child out of England and Wales. It looks at two forms of parent–child abduction—removal without consent, and retention once consent has expired—and considers methods of preventing child abduction, including port alerts and court orders. The chapter also discusses the role of the International Child Abduction and Contact Unit (ICACU) in the recovery of an abducted child under the Child Abduction and Custody Act 1985, as long as the child is in a country that is signatory to the Hague Convention 1980, Hague Convention 1996, or European Convention. It concludes by considering extradition of the guilty parent to England and Wales.
3. Confessions, and the defendant’s pre-trial silence
This chapter focuses on confessions and on the defendant’s pre-trial silence. It explains how a defendant may be convicted on the evidence of a confession alone. It analyses the definition of a confession as specified in s82(1) of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE), and how a confession proffered by the prosecution or by a co-defendant may be excluded by rule under PACE. The chapter also considers the preservation of the common law discretion to exclude confession evidence as well as the procedure for police interrogation of suspects under PACE. It examines recent case law on the significance of lack of access to legal advice of a suspect under interrogation. It concludes with an examination of how the jury at trial may draw an inference of guilt under ss34, 36, and 37 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 (CJPO), sections which have eroded the right to silence. The influence of the Strasbourg jurisprudence in this area is outlined.
22. International Parental Child Abduction
N V Lowe, G Douglas, E Hitchings, and R Taylor
This chapter concerns parental child abduction, that is, where one parent takes the child to another place or jurisdiction without the other’s consent. The chapter discusses the issue both where the abduction is within the UK and where the child is taken to a foreign jurisdiction. The chapter begins by looking at the mechanisms to prevent abduction. It then considers the inter-UK position under the Family Law Act 1986 followed by an examination of the international position first with regard to abductions to and from ‘non-Convention countries’ and then with regard to those governed principally by the 1980 Hague Abduction Convention. In the latter regard it discusses the concepts of rights of custody, wrongful removal and wrongful retention and habitual residence. It then examines the making and refusing to make orders for the child’s return and ends with a discussion about the position with regard to access.