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Chapter

Cover Commercial Law

2. Personal property  

This chapter is intended to provide an introduction to the concepts that underpin the law as it relates to property other than estates and interests in land. The issues in the chapter are complex and there remain numerous troublesome areas where the law is far from clear. The chapter begins by considering some basic principles and outlining the way in which English law categorizes property before moving on to consider how ownership is best thought of as a bundle of rights over something that the law recognizes as something which can be owned. Two of the three types of proprietary claim to personal property are discussed here—ownership and possession—followed by a discussion of the nature of legal ownership, including co-ownership, along with the difference between legal and equitable ownership.

Chapter

Cover Information Technology Law

17. Payments, cryptocurrency, and cryptoassets  

This chapter examines payments, cryptocurrency, and cryptoassets. It first provides an overview of token payments before looking at alternative electronic payment systems including debt substitution, payment by credit cards, and fund transfer. The chapter reviews the failure of the European Commission’s Electronic Money Directive 2000 and examines whether the current law, found in the 2009 Electronic Money Directive, and the second Payment Services Directive provide a better legal environment for electronic money to flourish. It spends considerable time looking at the development of cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin and how blockchain is used to establish trust in cryptocurrency transactions before analysing the current legal position of cryptocurrencies. It concludes by looking at the new class of cryptoassets, including NFTs, and asks what legally are such cryptoassets by examining the UK Jurisdiction Taskforce report and the Law Commission consultation paper.

Chapter

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate

1. Introduction to contracts of sale of goods  

Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. This chapter provides a general introduction to sale of goods law in the UK. It explains the sale of goods contract, why there is a different framework for these types of contract under English law, and the specific legislation for contracts of sale of goods and other relevant transactions. The chapter considers the statutory definitions for contract, property, and goods and discusses the distinction between sales and agreements to sell, between specific goods and unascertained goods, and between existing goods and future goods. The chapter introduces and provides an analysis of the Consumer Rights Act 2015, which subsequent chapters then build upon. Finally, it examines contracts other than of sale of goods.

Book

Cover Commercial Law Concentrate
Each Concentrate revision guide is packed with essential information, key cases, revision tips, exam Q&As, and more. Concentrates show you what to expect in a law exam, what examiners are looking for, and how to achieve extra marks. Commercial Law Concentrate is supported by extensive online resources to take your learning further. It has been written by experts and covers all the key topics so you can approach your exams with confidence. The clear, succinct coverage enables you to quickly grasp the fundamental principles of this area of law and helps you to succeed in exams. This guide has been rigorously reviewed and is endorsed by students and lecturers for level of coverage, accuracy, and exam advice. It is clear, concise, and easy to use, helping you to get the most out of your revision. After an introduction to contracts of the sale of goods, the book covers: statutory implied terms; passing of property and risk; retention of title clauses; exclusion and limitation clauses; non-existence and perishing of goods; transfer of ownership by a non-owner; delivery, acceptance, and payment; remedies of the unpaid seller; remedies of the buyer; consumer credit; the creation of agency and the agent’s authority; and the relationships created by agency—the rights and liabilities of the parties.