This chapter discusses security in lending. Lending is in some cases unsecured, where the standing of the borrower is such that the banks cannot demand it or, because of the creditworthiness of the borrower, do not regard it as necessary. However, much international lending is now oriented towards particular projects, and security is taken. Security is often required so that the bank can recoup itself out of the collateral in the event of default. In relation to project financings, the security required by the banks will often be of a comprehensive nature; for example a fixed and floating charge, a charge over shares, a legal assignment of material contracts, and so on. With syndicated lending, the security might be granted in favour of a security trustee to hold to the benefit of the members of the lending syndicate. Within a corporate group, each member may contribute to the security, and there will be cross-guarantees.
Ross Cranston, Emilios Avgouleas, Kristin van Zweiten, Theodor van Sante, and Christoper Hare
Iris Chiu and Joanna Wilson
This chapter explores the development of a regulatory regime for crisis management and resolution. The lack of a coherent policy toolkit to deal with bank failures and cross-border bank failure implications in the 2007–9 global financial crisis sets the context for policy reform in bank crisis management and resolution. The regime for bank crisis management and resolution in the UK is found in the Bank Recovery and Resolution Order 2016 and the PRA Rulebook, transposing the European Bank Recovery and Resolution Directive 2014. This regime covers crisis prevention, which refers to advance planning by banks; early intervention by resolution authorities short of resolution; the processes and powers in resolution; safeguards and accountability in resolution; and funding for resolution. The chapter then looks at deposit guarantee schemes as well as cross-border crisis management and resolution.